I have written in an earlier blog how Terri Gorney and I became good friends. The first time we met was at the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan when she agreed to drive up to Ann Arbor from her home in Fort Wayne to help me with research on passenger pigeon author William Butts Mershon. Terri has been supportive of Project Passenger Pigeon ever since, sharing info from her own research and helping promote the effort in Northeast Indiana. She is vice president of the Friends of the Limberlost and works closely with Randy Lehman, site manager of the Limberlost State Historic Site (Geneva, IN). (These efforts celebrate Gene Stratton-Porter, whose novels about the Limberlost Swamp were read by millions of readers throughout the world.) Teri would make a great agent and she put together and coordinated a three venue tour for me in her region from November 8-10.
The first night’s presentation was at the annual banquet of the local land conservancy, ACRES, an organization that has been preserving land in the region since 1960. They currently hold over 5,700 acres. I had a nice conversation with their executive director, Jason Kissel and the event was well attended. The second talk was at Limberlost. The date corresponded with Terri’s birthday and was close to my mine so the event was something of a birthday party. Most unexpected was the amazing birthday cake created by chef Cary McClure and decorated to look like the cover of A Feathered River. And the third talk was at Ball State University’s beautiful Minnetrista, “a museum for cultural exploration.” Minnestrista means “a gathering place by the water,” in this case the White River. The site takes up forty acres including archival space, display galleries, performance space, and a variety of gardens and natural landscapes. Nearby were three of the remaining Ball Brother mansions, one of which served as my overnight accommodation.
On my first full day, Terri gave me a tour of south Adams County. We did not see much in the way of noteworthy birds but Terri’s connection with the Amish provided fascinating insights. Indiana is home to the third largest Amish population in the world and Adams County has the second largest in Indiana, with 47 districts. The Amish, like many other small minorities, dance with modernity, knowing that jettisoning traditions will weaken or destroy their group identity yet recognizing that modern technology can open important opportunities and even save lives. So, on an earlier trip, she showed me a farm house owned and operated by an “English” family (how the Amish refer to others). Local Amish asked if they could install a telephone in the outhouse on the English farm: they acknowledge the importance of that device in reaching emergency services but don’t want it located in a comfortable place where people might be inclined to use it for recreation.
Randy has reached out to the Amish to see if he can offer programs at Limberlost that they might attend. In the process, Teri and Randy have become friends with an Amish midwife named Sylvia. (When a pregnancy proves problematic, she has no hesitation recommending that patients go to nearby Lutheran Hospital for the more advanced care that is needed.) Over time, a program developed where a remarkable high school-aged student named Alexandra Forsythe, who is passionate about birds and nature, was allowed to teach bird classes in Amish schools. Teri and I visited Sylvia’s home , and it is the first time I have been in an Amish home. Sylvia was not in at the time but I met her husband and daughter.
I had never been to Ball State University before but I had been in correspondence with Barb Stedman, an English scholar who teaches in the university’s honors program, since at least 2007. In the course of doing research on my book, Of Prairie, Woods, and Waters: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing,. I came across a web site (no longer extant) she created where her students would write accounts of Indiana authors who addressed environmental themes in their work. She had been interested in Project Passenger Pigeon since I first brought it to her attention in spring of 2011. To mark the anniversary she collaborated with Kamal Islam, the university’s ornithologist, in teaching a class on passenger pigeons and the lessons inherent in its story. But this wasn’t all: the students had to create art pieces related to the pigeon, which were displayed at Minnestrata. One student composed a flute piece memorializing the bird; others created a hunting scene with origami pigeons, a net, and bushel filled with the “dead” paper birds. The whole effect was very moving. On display, as well, was the one passenger pigeon that is part of the bird collection.
I also spent some time with Kamal, for he showed me that bird collection. (His areas of research include the conservation of rare and endangered species, the evolution of mating systems, and the impacts of habitat fragmentation.) There was one individual in particular that received most of our attention. Earlier in the fall (2014), someone had found a dead jaeger along a road not far from Muncie. The bird was presented to Kamal, and he was surprised to see that it was an immature long-tailed jaeger, an oceanic bird that does occasionally show up on inland lakes, but rarely corn fields.
The passenger pigeon story itself took place, of course, mostly in the eastern half of the US and Canada, although the messages in that story are relevant everywhere. Most of my talks were in areas that the bird once lived but I did have the opportunity to travel west twice in November. The first invitation was proffered by the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Each year they collaborate with the Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory in sponsoring a lecture series on birds and my presentation would be part of that program. Julia Spaulding-Beegles, who coordinates adult programs at the museum, sent the invitation and she did a masterful job of making my stay so enjoyable.
I was picked up at the airport on November 4 by Norm Lewis, who for over twenty years has led bird walks for the museum, including some to South America. He is also the Past-President of the Colorado Field Ornithologists. In a series of e-mails, I answered his questions on what I wanted to see by saying that I did not have any target species but, given their absence from my usual haunts, mountains were of great appeal.
Our first stop was Red Rocks Amphitheater, a musical venue that seats 9,450 listeners. The site has an interesting history. During the first decade or so of the twentieth century, John Brisben Walker saw the rock walls, then called “Garden of the Angels,” as providing the ideal acoustics for musical performances, and he produced several shows. In 1927 the city of Denver bought the property, currently co-owned with the County of Denver, and completed construction of the venue in 1941. But not only is the area scenic, but it harbors good birds. We were fortunate in seeing the golden-crowned sparrow that has shown up for the last few years. Later Norm guided us into the foothills to Genesee Mountain Park. From there, we circled back through Evergreen, where we had lunch at The Little Bear. Then we came down Bear Creek Canyon, with a side trip to Mount Falcon Park, and we finished up at Lair O’ The Bear Park. Birding was kind of slow, but with the dynamite scenery and great conversation hardly noticed. We did see one species I had not seen for years: mountain chickadee. On our way back we also stopped at a lovely stream where Norm had seen dippers but we had not luck. The dipper has always been a noteworthy bird for me because I saw my first one in the summer of 1966, five months before I started birding, and did not see another for several years, missing it on a number of western trips.
The next morning I went out with Larry Modesitt, who is board chairman of the Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory. Larry had a fascinating story that took place during his time as a student at Williams College. Martin Luther King had come to speak and he was seated next to Larry at dinner, when the two shook hands. I felt quite honored to be with someone who had once shaken hands with a luminary such as Dr. King.
Larry took me to Barr Lake State Park in Brighton. The lake started life as a bison wallow, but has been enlarged in modern times by two dams. The park itself is 2,715 acres. It is heavily birded and boasts a list of 350 species. Little rain fell this summer and fall, and thus water levels of the lake were low. We found a nice number of shorebirds and waterfowl. The most striking sight was the large white pelican colony at one end of the lake. While hardly from a self-sustaining population, it was fun to see a very tame chukar run by park headquarters.
Across the railroad tracks from Barr Lake is the headquarters of the Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory. Established in 1988, RMBO works across a broad swath of the Rocky Mountains extending into Mexico. They have a large staff who work on all facets of bird conservation including science, education, and land stewardship. It is a very impressive organization and one that I had been very familiar with before. Larry introduced me to Tammy VerCauteren, executive director of the observatory. I met the rest of the board that night for dinner prior to my talk.
The Denver Museum of Nature and Science is, unlike too many museums nowadays, thriving and financially healthy due to wise management. The auditorium I spoke at was large and nearly filled. A huge surprise awaited me with the beginning of the questions after the talk. The first person prefaced his query by saying he grew up near the Skokie Lagoons (one of my favorite birding spots in the Chicago area) and thought birds were decreasing. A second person started with, “When I worked with Chicago Wilderness. And the third mentioned she grew up within a block of where I lived in Chicago for 11 years. I was waiting for close relatives to stand up.
Afterwards I was given a tour of the bird collection by John Demboski, the museum’s Department Chair & Curator of Vertebrate Zoology. The collection was built primarily through the efforts of Alfred Bailey, an ornithologist who served as the museum’s director from 1936 to 1969. The museum has the largest number of passenger pigeons of any west of the species’ range. (The pigeon diorama is also outstanding and among the best I have seen.) Several of the skins and two eggs were on display for my talk. The eggs were unusual in that they supposedly came from one dead bird bought in the New York market. The size of a passenger pigeon egg clutch was a matter of great controversy with Audubon and many others saying the birds laid two eggs and Wilson saying they laid but one. The best evidence was that supplied by captive birds, almost all of which were recorded as having laid one egg. So if these two eggs really came from one bird it would be quite remarkable although as my friend Garrie Landry, an experienced aviculturist, has pointed out to me, on occasion an individual of a species that ordinarily lays one egg will produce a second. Other odd passenger pigeon remains in the collection are the bits and pieces of at least three birds. Apparently Bailey encountered a collector who in addition to having whole birds had these chunks and decided to buy that too.
I have commented before that on rare occasions I have looked through a collection and recognized specific birds from the literature. An example was at the Smithsonian when I saw the passenger pigeon shot in Nevada, the farthest west the bird is known to have occurred in historic times. In Denver the bird that had me hyperventilating was a female ivory-billed woodpecker that I have long mused about (although forgot was in Denver): it was shot in Forest Park in St. Louis in 1876, the same year the park opened, thus making it the world’s farthest north most ivory-billed woodpecker record. Washington University, which I attended for five years, is just across Skinker Boulevard from the park and so I spent a fair amount of time there. Knowing of the record, images of ivory-bills flashed in my mind on more than one occasion as I meandered along the paths..
The Cincinnati excursion described in my last post was sandwiched between two interesting trips also to Midwest destinations. Harbor Springs, Michigan is at the northern end of Michigan’s southern peninsula. It is an important place in the history of the passenger pigeon because the town is located with the area of the last great pigeon nesting in 1878. Covering about 200 square miles, the nesting probably involved something like 50 or 60 million birds. This nesting was also unique in that it was the first time in history that an effort was made to minimize the killing. That effort probably had minimal impact on protecting birds but it did draw attention to the plight of the bird. Harbor Springs is also an important place in the history of Project Passenger Pigeon, for it was one of the places Lizzy Condon and I visited on the first P3 organizing trip back in April 2011. (See my blog http://www.birdzilla.com/blog/2011/05/30/p3-in-michigan-more-of-lizzies-and-joels-marvelous/) Mary Cummings, director of the Harbor Springs Area Historical Society and Museum, received us very warmly and we had been in touch ever since.
I drove up on October 22 and spent all day of Oct 23. Mary took me to a local school where we showed the movie and then in the afternoon a group of students visited the museum. In the evening I gave my talk. One jewel that the museum offered was a painting by Lorna Jean Schneider created in her high school art class in 1940. It is entitled “Arrival of the Pigeons.” Know one seems to know what became of Ms. Schneider, but the hand written note on the back of the painting (likely by her teacher) says this about the artist: “Lorna Jean is very gifted and I think intends to go on with her art work. She lives on Howard Street.” The painting is in the possession of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians Department of Archives and Records, the agency that generously lent the work to the history museum for its display.
From the beginning of P3, Stan Temple, who taught for many years in the Department of Wildlife Ecology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, said he would organize anniversary activities within his state. He enlisted many organizations including the Wisconsin Historical Society and the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters to help publicize the importance of 2014. Perhaps the culmination of his efforts occurred over the weekend of November 1 and 2. The Wisconsin Academy sponsored a screening of From Billions to None, followed by a panel discussion involving Stan, Curt Meine, David Blockstein, and me. In the evening, there was a reading with actors of Brett Angelos’ wonderful play, Savage Passengers, based on the incident in 1834 when actor Junius Brutus Booth attempted to recruit the well-known theologian James Freeman Clark to preside over a funeral for a bushel of passenger pigeons. Booth abhorred killing and wanted Clark to join him in this protest against the slaughter of the pigeons. Part of Brett’s play had been performed in a Chicago theater but this is the first time the entire piece was read.
The following day, on Sunday afternoon, the Wisconsin Symphony Orchestra performed Anthony Philip Heinrich’s “The Columbiad; Or the Migration of the American Passenger Pigeon.” Heinrich was America’s first symphony composer and his master piece was this nin movement symphony, each movement of which depicted a different aspect of the species’ life.. He lived for a while in the woods of Kentucky during the 1840s and knew the bird well. The work had been performed once, in Prague in 1857. So it had been a goal of P3 to get this piece played and we worked closely with Neely Bruce, a musicologist, conducter, and composer at Wesleyan University, to make it happen. Stan reached out to his contacts in Madison and we were thrilled when the University of WIsconsin orchestra committed to a performance. (Neely was also able to get the Yale Symphony Orchestra to perform the music in mid-October.)
Another important aspect that made this weekend so enjoyable was that it drew a wide range of friends. Cindy joined me; Brett and his wife Cheryl attended, as did Susan Wegner from Maine, Lynne Hepler from Vernon Hills, Bob Russell from Minneapolis, and Lizzy Condon from Duluth. In varying combinations we hung out.
The first half of Sunday was open so Stan had organized a tour of the International Crane Foundation in Baraboo. It was a special experience because besides Cindy, Cheryl, Brett, and me, the tour leaders included people who had been closely involved with ICF in a variety of capacities: Lizzie worked there for six months (and works there now); Curt and Stan have been consultants and/or on the board; and Jeb Barzen is Director of Field Ecology. ICF has all 15 species of the world’s cranes, including whooping and the Siberian, which is now the rarest of all. One of my favorite birds in the collection is Slidell, a gray-crowned crane from Africa. In Jeb’s words: “Slidell is a female who was raised at the Miami Zoo to be a bird trained to fly in front of audiences. She didn’t fit in well at ICF for being part of a flight show though because she was imprinted on people too strongly. This caused her to be highly aggressive to female staff (imprinting goes both ways), of whom we have a preponderance, and this interfered with her flying on cue. Now she is a great display bird and approaches people readily. For women human guests, her approaches are to threaten them while her approaches to males are to court them!” I have been told by some female staffers that even if they do their best to dress and act like a male, Slidell is never fooled and acts as aggressively as ever.
Cincinnati, of course, plays a special role in the history of the passenger pigeon. I was there on September 1 for the anniversary but had been invited by Xavier Univeristy to return in late October to participate in a special panel discussion organized by Karim Tiro of the History Department and James Buchanan of the Edward Brueggeman Center for Dialogue. The title of the program was ” The Legacy of Martha: The Last Passenger Pigeon and the Rise of Conservation.” The Brueggeman Center is devoted to the idea of bringing people with different backgrounds and emphases to discuss issues of public concern. This type of interdisciplinary approach is near and dear to my heart and so it was an honor to be on a panel including such people as Thane Maynard (executive director of the Cincinnati Zoo) and John Reiger, a historian. (Although not on the panel, I also had a chance to chat with P3 stalwart, Dan Marsh.)
Cincinnati, besides being home of the zoo, is also where my long time friend Stan Hedeen lives. Stan grew up in Evanston and was a regular on the Evanston North Shore Christmas Bird Count, where we probably first met in December 1967. He was a member of the biology faculty at Xavier for many years and then worked in administrative positions. When I started my evangelizing to grow interest in the 2014 anniversary, I first contacted Stan as my entree into Cincinnati (see my spring 2010 blog posting http://www.birdzilla.com/blog/2010/04/17/a-trip-to-the-holy-land-part-ii-piketon-and-cincinnati/). Through his efforts, I met Dan, Thane, Karim, and John Ruthven. He agreed to put me at his home during my stay in Cincinnati.
Getting to Cincinnati was something of a challenge. Round trip airfare on American was something like $800. Fortunately, my dynamite travel agent Maura Stein, found a company called Ultimate Air Shuttle that flew round trip from Midway Airport to Cincinnati for just over $500. In over 20 years of being in the business Maura never heard of the airline but we booked it. It turns out that while it flies out of Midway it does not use any of the Midway terminals. Rather you have to go through a guarded gate to get to a building with a different name on it. (The operation was beginning to resemble something out of the television show Blacklist) I mentioned to one of the employees that even the web-site was unclear as to where you need to be, and she said that was in part because some of the customers prefer traveling under the proverbial radar. (The price of airfare actually declined because from Cincinnati I would up flying to DC where I rented a car to attend the American Conservation Film Festival which was bestowing an award on “From Billions to None: The Passenger Pigeon’s Flight to Extinction.” Each of the three legs of the trip was with a different airline.)
Ultimate uses a genuine terminal at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Airport, but one that was long abandoned and now only houses Ultimate. But upon my arrival, Stan and I found each other without difficulty. He took me straight away to Big Bone Lick State Park in Kentucky. This site has a remarkable history in that during the Pleistocene salt springs attracted large herds of two bison species, mammoths, mastodons, toed horses, and ground sloths. But the earth was soft (early European settlers called it “jelly ground”) and many of these big mammals became mired, their bones gathering over the millennia. The remains were concentrated over a ten acre site that became known as Big Bone Lick. Long known to native people, the first European to record the remains was a French Canadian explorer who visited in 1739. Collectors followed and the specimens were distributed to museums throughout Europe and the United States, as well as to such prominent Americans as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. Scientists recognized the unique value of the place by referring to it as the “Birth Place of American Vertebrate Paleontology.” And beginning in 1953, an effort began to have the Big Lone Lick protected as a state park. Seven years later that mission was accomplished, and over the seceding years the park has grown to 813 acres and a beautiful museum has been erected.
Stan had a personal interest in the park, having been active in the creation of the interpretative signage. He shared one anomaly in the paleontological record of Big Bone Lick: despite all the large vertebrates present, no one has ever found the remains of a saber-toothed cat or any other predator.
The next morning we went to the Cincinnati Museum Center. The center is unusual, if not unique, in being located at the former Union Terminal. The exhibits had to be constructed to correspond to the long spaces characteristic of train stations. The other element that contributes to the center’s distinctiveness is that it is comprised of three separate museums (in addition to an OMNIMAX theater and history library): the Cincinnati History Museum, Duke Energy Children’s Museum, and the Museum of Natural History and Science. There are some unfortunate aspects to the museum as well. Recently, it was established that the rebar within the building’s frame had rusted to the point of compromising the integrity of the structure. A lage bond referendum was passed last fall and the funds will be available to restore the building, but during that process the museum will be closed for over a year. And second, like many museums, curators have been jettisoned so that the valuable bird collection receives mainly the attention of volunteers, including Stan.
Being an old collection, the museum has a goodly number of both passenger pigeons and Carolina parakeets. The last Carolina parakeet to die in captivity was Incas, who spent his days in the Cincinnati Zoo until he perished in February 21, 1918 (the anniversary is approaching). Unlike Martha, his body was never placed in a big block of ice and sent to the Smithsonian where his arrival was well marked. As far as I know, Incas’ fate has never been established. The Cincinnati Museum would be a likely repository for the local celebrity but none of the parakeets have any provenance so it is impossible to know if Incas is amongst them. As far as I can tell, every passenger pigeon in captivity after 1900, with the exception of Martha, were thrown away when they died. I was struck therefore by one pigeon in the collection that did originate from the zoo. But the year was 1883.
The museum has two other truly extraordinary avian specimens. a great auk and great auk egg. They acquired the mount and egg in a special purchase made many decades ago. Great auks became extinct in July1844 when three collectors ascended Eldey Island, off the coast of Iceland. Two of the men wrung the necks of the only pair they found while a third smashed the lone egg.
Having arrived late on the evening of October 16 from a talk in Springfield, Illinois, Cindy and I left early the following morning for Wausau, Wisconsin, the home of the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum. On our way up we stopped at the Baraboo Wisconsin High School: Paul Roth, a chemistry teacher, had reached out earlier to tell me that they had two passenger pigeon pigeons in their collection and we arranged that I would give a talk on our way to Wausau. Back in 1895, Charles Deininger donated his bird collection to the high school. With 265 mounts of 150 species, it is said to have been the largest privately owned bird collection in Wisconsin.
The talk was in the library, now known as the “media center,” and was well attended by upper level science students and some middle school students who are members of their Science Club. Paul also reached out to the local media, International Crane Foundation, and the Aldo Leopold Foundation all of which were represented. (I met for the first time Buddy Huffaker, the Leopold Foundation’s executive director who was so helpful to David Mrazek and me in the making of our documentary.) It is always interesting what students bring away from a presentation. One of the television reporters who was supposed to be present called Paul and told him she could not make it because of illness. I quipped that I hoped she did not have Ebola. When Paul later talked to students, one cited that joke as a highlight.
The Leigh Yawkey Woodson Museum of Art has as its “guiding spirit the marriage of art and nature.” The families who created the museum, all with deep roots in Wausau, wanted to share their love of these elements and the museum has grown over the years so that it now holds over 5,000 objects and is one of the country’s premier wildlife art museums. Every year since 1976, the museum has mounted its internationally acclaimed Birds in Art where artists are encouraged to send in their works related to related: a jury selects 100 of the top submissions which are then put on display from September through November. After the exhibit closes, 60 pieces are selected for a traveling show that is hosted by museums across the country.
Stan Temple had contacted Kathy Foley, the museum’s director, to see if they would be interested in offering any exhibits or programming for the anniversary. Kathy was very enthusiastic and not only put together an exhibit, but invited me to spend two days at the museum giving programs. I was to give a talk on Saturday and they considered having me give a different talk on Sunday, but they were afraid the Green Bay Packers game would reduce attendance, so instead, we scheduled a screening of the movie. When we arrived on Friday, I realized I had not brought a copy of the film so in panic I called David Mrazek, my partner on the documentary, and asked if he could send a copy that would arrive the next day. (Although it would be dreadful, I was prepared to drive home to pick up a copy and then return) Fortunately, the documentary arrived in time and, football game or not, a nice crowd came to see the movie and participate in the discussion afterwards.
Our stay at the museum was wonderful. Most unexpected was running into long-time birding friends Jerry Rosenband, Larry Balch, and their respective spouses. We had dinner together. In addition, Cindy and I had the privilege of spending quality time with Kathy (who at one time was the director of Leigh Block Gallery at Northwestern University: it is always nice to see local ties), Catie Anderson (curator of education), and other staffers. Cindy and I were put up in the guest house across the street from the museum. Often such facilities have a book, where guests are encouraged to leave comments. Because most of those who stay here are world class artists, the guest book was brimming with stunning images. I felt quite inadequate with my few lines of enthusiastic prose.
On our first morning, Kathy arranged for us to go birding with Susan Ford-Hoffert, a local birder who is very active. She took us to several areas, including some neat wetlands, but unfortunately we did not see very much in way of birds. (The highlight was a group of wild turkeys.) It was duck hunting season and the reports of gunfire sounded frequently. The following morning we followed Susan’s suggestion that we explore Rib Mountain State Park. Again we did not see many birds but being surrounded by the autumn colors of northern Wisconsin was a fine experience.
About 40 miles south of Wausau, is Stevens Point which hosts a University of Wisconsin branch with a particularly strong natural resources program. It also has a museum of natural history. Ray Reser, the museum’s director, had asked me if I would be interested in giving a presentation on the Monday Cindy and I were returning home. Even though the only time I could do it was mid-morning, there was a nice turnout by students and others. Cindy had lesson plans to prepare so we scooted home without delay.
I do not recall ever flying to multiple domestic destination one after the other without returning home first. But that happened twice last year, the first time being a trip that had three distinct legs. I flew to Burlington Vermont, then to Newark, and then was driven to Queens, returning from LaGuardia. Having visited St. Johnsbury last March, I was not expecting another invitation from a Vermont organization. But Erin Talmage and Allison Gergely of the Birds of Vermont Museum in Huntington wanted me to give a presentation to cap off the exhibit and programming they were offering as part of the anniversary. The museum had a fall speakers series and they would be partnering with the Green Mountain Audubon Society. Vermont in October and such enthusiastic hosts made the offer most appealing.
Allison picked me up at the airport in Burlington and took me on a tour of the area before we ended at her house in Huntington where she hosted a dinner which included Erin and museum board members. One highlight of the tour was the ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center, one component of the Leahy Center for Lake Champlain. Established in 2003, the museum is a celebration of the lake that draws 100,000 visitors a year. It is an impressive venue with a wide range of exhibits to engage a diverse audience. I have a particular fondness for lake sturgeon and bowfin and the aquarium offers some impressive individuals. We hung out a bit on the porch but failed to get a glimpse of Champ. In fact our only sighting of the cryptid was in the gift shop.
After dinner that night I accompanied Shirley Johnson (a board member of the musuem) and her husband, a physician specializing in ski injuries), back to their lovely home in Williston. The following morning was a bird walk with the Green Mountain Audubon Society. I had been warned that rains were expected so I brought a poncho which proved to valuable. Rusty blackbirds and a red-shouldered hawk were the avian highlights.
The Birds of Vermont Museum is all about promoting the study and appreciation of birds. The core of its collection are 470 bird carvings representing the life work of a most extraordinary man, Bob Spear. Self taught, he carved his first bird in 1938 and over the subsequent decades his technique has become so refined his creations truly do look as if they hatched from eggs rather than sculpted from wood. The museum’s web site gives the example of his tom wild turkey which took two years and 1,300 hours to complete. The Bald Eagle required 400 hours of work “because of the large size and in particular because the brown color on the bird is burned with a hand tool, rather than painted.” Having amassed his collection Bob then set about establishing his museum, converting the barn next to his house as the show-case. And before that, he established the Green Mountain Audubon Society. He was going to come down to the museum to meet but illness unfortunately prevented that from happening. Besides the collection, the museum also offers a window to view the feeders and an adjacent 100 acre bird sanctuary/nature preserve. While watching the feeders with Allison, I glimpsed a large accipiter whoosh by which Allison said was the resident goshawk. I really love that species and wished I had obtained a better view.
The talk was held at the University of Vermont and we well attended. After lunch the next day I was taken to the airport for the next chapter of my trip. Back on October 10, 2013, I received an e-mail from the Turtle Back Zoo, the largest zoo in New Jersey. Despite the early participation of the Cincinnati Zoo and significant effort, zoos proved to be generally uninterested in Project Passenger Pigeon. So it was exciting for a zoo to reach out. The message said that if I was able to give a talk, they would seek a grant to pay my way. I did not hear anything definite from them again until Many 2014 when they indicated the money had come through.
I was picked up at the airport by Terry DeRosa, general curator of the zoo, and situated in my motel, located very close to the zoo. It was late in the afternoon so he picked me a bit later and we had a fine dinner at McLoone’s Boathouse. The next day, Friday, was jam packed. Through the magic of Facebook I had become friends with Rick Wright, an outstanding writer and scholar who, among other things, is the book review editor of Birding magazine. He picked me up and we headed to the coast where we spent half a day at Sandy Hook, part of Gateway National Recreation Area. Birds were moving particularly raptors. We had a number of species including merlin and peregrine. There was an awkward moment when Rick looked up and said Cooper’s hawk. I followed his gaze but what I observed looked like a peregrine, one of which we had just seen. I tried to be low-key about it but asked if he was sure, given my differing conclusion. He looked up again and saw the peregrine: then I saw his Cooper’s and all was well. We also came upon some banders who had just captured a white-throated sparrow and a junco as we arrived.
Rick brought me back to the hotel in plenty of time for a tour of the zoo by Terry. Brint Spencer is the director of the zoo and he was responsible for getting the zoo to host me. He had been gone earlier but was going to be back in the afternoon. The zoo opened in 1963, nd encompasses almost 16 acres. AZA accredited, it is the most visited in the state. Terry took me behind the scenes and treated me to a feeding of Razor, a most engaging (although with a prickly sense of humor) North American porcupine. Between Terry and Brint I recieved a tour of the zoo. One of their rarest boarders is an Amur leopard, a race of spotted leopard that inhabits a tiny portion of the Russian Chinese borders. There are likely no more than 40 left in the wild. They also have a Komodo monitor, a species that has long interested me and that was inspiration for a 1992 Indonesia trip. A particularly popular attraction at the zoo is the budgerigar enclosure where budgies of all colors gather around the visitor, particularly those armed with food.
Rick and his wife attended the evening talk. So did Nancy Tognan who is with the Queens County Bird Club. When word spread that I was going to be in West Orange, Nancy asked if I would be interested in giving a talk at the bird club. When I told her I could not stay in the area that long, she offered as an alternative a day’s birding and lodging at her family’s home. After the talk, she took me to Queens where I met her spouse Lou. Up bright and early, we met the seven other intrepid club members, including the trip leader Ari Gilbert, at Jones Beach Coast Guard Station. The clouds were not stingy as they released quantities of rain throughout the day. We wound up with 47 species including American oystercatcher, lesser backed-backed gull, five species of warblers (pine among them), and a huge flight of thousands of tree swallows. We broke for brunch but the rains kept a comin’ so we pulled the plug. Later Nancy, Lou and I explored Robert Moses State Park and the Marine Nature Area in Oceanside.
One of the more unexpected invitations that I received was proffered by Scott Bishop, a curator at the Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art at Auburn University. Among the materials for which Scott has principal responsibility is the Louise Hauss and David Brent Miller Audubon Collection consisting of over 100 Audubon prints, most of which are from Birds of America. The 2014 anniversary provided an unusual theme that could be illustrated by the Audubon prints. To explore that possibility, Scott originally contacted the Project Passenger Pigeon web-site to find out more about the Anthony Philip Heinrich symphony, the nine movement piece that depicts the life of the species. (The symphony had been performed but once, in the 1850s in Prague, and a major goal of P3 was to have it performed during the anniversary year. More on this later.) I sent the information that was requested, along with images by contemporary artists that might comprise a compelling exhibit. As the correspondence between us increased, there was an effort to become Facebook Friends. My failure to find the right Scott Bishop to make the request, led to an e-mail and this reply from Scott: “My name is hyphenated on Facebook. There is always the moment when I have to explain that I am a woman.” Scott is Alabama raised and her parents kept up that fine southern tradition of giving female offspring Christian names that sound like surnames: one thinks of such southern luminaries as Harper, Flannery, and Carson.
These early e-mails were sent in early January right when the book was coming out. Scott read some of the reviews and took me up on my interest in coming down to give a talk. So I was scheduled for the last day in September and the first days of October. (I later learned to my great pleasure that Scott had earlier brought in the poet Tom Crawford, who is also featured on the P3 web-site, to give readings and talk to students.) She was a terrific host, contacting other faculty members who might want to get together or even take me birding. (On the rare occasions where the inviting venue is within the range of the spotted skunk, my number one jinx mammal in the US, I ask if there are any known locations in the vicinity. To date only one person has replied affirmatively: Scott actually knows someone who does see them on occasion. Unfortunately, the logistics of looking for this largely nocturnal species just did not work out . But God bless her for trying.)
Getting to Auburn is a little bit of an effort. It is about 100 miles from Atlanta’s Hartsfield Jackson Airport, which vies with O’Hare as the nation’s busiest. But the shuttle bus arrived on time and dropped me off at the Hotel at Auburn University, a stately establishment which is affiliated with the university’s program in Hotel and Restaurant Management. My room was on the fifth floor and the elevator opened opposite a door labeled “Presidential Suite.” I later asked a hotel employee about the room and he gave me a tour of the capacious space. Apparently, one gentleman has reserved if for something like twenty years of football weekends when he brings his family for all of the home games. (I am not a huge fan of college sports, but clearly at places like Auburn it generates a tremendous amount of good will throughout the state. I left on Friday- the following day there would be battle of large felids as the Tigers of Auburn were hosting the Tigers of LSU- and the campers and trailers had already begun occupying all the flat vacant land in town. I was told that some people actually own houses in Auburn which they use precisely 14 times a year, the night before and night of home games. )
After I settled in Scott picked me up and we joined friends of hers for a great southern style barbeque. I had visited Alabama but twice beofre (it was the destination of the family’s first vacation, when we went to visit my mother’s brother in 1960.) and so it was particularly fascinating listening to long-time residents discuss the state of their state. I wish I had the list of everyone present because it was most enjoyable. I did bond with Barry Fleming in particular, being that he is an active birder (as a day job, he is a member of the art department).
Among the people I most wanted to meet was Geoff Hill, Auburn’s ornithologist who authored a recent book on ivory-billed woodpeckers. Geoff led a group investigating the presence of this legendary species in northern Florida. He picked me up in the morning to do some birding. There were no life birds in the area but I did mention that I had not seen either Bachman’s sparrow or red-cockaded woodpeckers for a long time so we targeted those species. Geoff obtained permission for us to visit a private holding which harbors, in Geoff’s words, “an odd shortleaf pine/loblolly pine savanna that looks like a longleaf pine savanna.” The site holds the largest local populations of both the woodpecker and the Bachman’s, but Geoff thought the time of year would be an impediment to our success. It took us a little time to find the right area but finding the exact location for red-cockadeds is pretty easy: the trees are spray painted with either an x (in northern Florida) or a ring. As we walked off from the road at one point, we flushed a sparrow that I barely glimpsed. Geoff saw it better and identified it as a Bachman’s. Fortunately we had much better views of a red-cockaded.
Geoff dropped me off at a university picnic on campus. One group was folding origami passenger pigeons. But a lot was going on such that it merited an appearance by the university president. Perhaps of even greater import, the event drew none other than Aubie. It was the first time in my life that I shook hands with a Division I mascot. Next on the agenda was my presentation to a class on conservation biology for non-majors taught by Bob Boyd, a plant ecologist. A tour of the Donald Davis arboretum (part of Auburn) with Scott and Dee Smith followed. It is 13.5 acres in size and packed with gems including a fine collection of insectivorous plants.
Scott picked me up Thursday morning for a tour of the Smith Museum where I was presenting my talk later in the day. The extraordinary exhibit, entitled “The Art of Vanishing,” represented a collaboration between the art museum and Auburn’s Museum of Natural History: the Audubon plates were augmented by actual specimens of endangered and extinct species. The exhibit was described in an article as “a cautionary tale bridging art and science.” Jason Bond, biology professor and director of the natural history museum characterized the effort as “a tremendous opportunity to work with the art museum as it highlights the importance of natural history collection and showcases the intersection of art and science in such a meaningful and poignant manner.” On display were such Alabama specialties as the flat pigtoe mussel (endemic to the Tombigbee watershed but presumed extinct as it has not been found since the late 1970s ) and two endangered subspecies of the beach mouse.
Near our dinner venue was a small space that is used as a gallery to display the works of students. At least one class was given the assignment to take passages from A Feathered River Across the Sky and create images inspired by the words. It was exceedingly moving to see my words so skillfully depicted by these so very talented young artists. Following dinner was my One more highlight of a grand trip.
Anyone passionate about passenger pigeons really must make a pilgrimage to Toronto and the Royal Ontario Museum. In the 1920s ROM prepared and distributed a detailed questionnaire on passenger pigeons that yielded important information from those who knew the birds from life. Under the museum’s auspices, this information was collated and augmented by a wide range of other material by Margaret Mitchell, who published her findings in the superb The Passenger Pigeon in Ontario. Perhaps of greater significance for current visitors, ROM has the world’s largest collection of passenger pigeons with about 160 skins, mounts, and skeletons. Seventy of those specimens were acquired by volunteer Paul Hahn who from 1918 to 1960 scoured the province in search of his quarry. I was therefore particularly pleased to be invited to give a talk in late September.
Project Passenger Pigeon has put me in touch with people in Toronto, a number of whom I had met but some I had not. Artists Tim Hough, whose bird renditions are nothing less than stunning, and Nicole Vermond, both of whom drove down to Chicago to see the documentary, graciously picked me up at the airport. We had lunch with another Toronto friend Richard Aaron Then Nicole and Tim took me birding. Again, mid afternoon land birding proved to be slow: the natural history highlight were the antics of a raccoon (at end of text).
My hotel was a couple of blocks from ROM, and right next to the University of Toronto. The next day was spent entirely at ROM. One unexpected pleasure came a few weeks before my trip when I received an e-mail from David Day, a world renowned author whose books on J.R. R. Tolkein have sold over a million copies. But he has also written extensively on extinct species, authoring such titles as the Doomsday Book of Animals (1981), revised as The Encyclopedia of Vanished Species (1989), Noah’s Choice (1990) and Nevermore: A Book of Hours – Meditations on Extinction (2012). He congratulated me on A Feathered River and expressed a desire to get together when I was in Toronto.
David and I met at the museum first thing and had a delightful time together. My formal presentation was part of a two person talk: the other speaker was Ben Novak who would be addressing the de-extinction work he is working on. David and I were at the museum guest entrance when in walked Ben and his parents. Later we were all summoned by Mark Peck, the bird collections manager, to see the collections. While most museums have a drawer or two containing some number of passenger pigeons, ROM had many drawers. Ben and I reveled in the treasures, and never even finished going through all the passenger pigeon drawers. I did say to Mark that he would never have more enthusiastic passenger pigeon devotees looking at the collection at the same time as he did that day. It was a ROM specimen whose DNA Ben is using in his work.
ROM had planned a terrific program with a reception and book signing before hand. There was also a musical prelude featuring a chorus replicating various avian sounds. I also met for the first time Skip Shand, a Facebook Friend whose ruminations on birding, nature more broadly, and literature (Skip taught theater for many years Glendon College of York University) led to some great on line discussions and a desire to cross paths. This trip provided the opportunity, as he was picking me up in the morning to go birding, after which he would deposit me at the airport.
Our first morning stop was Rotary Park in Ajax where we also met up with John Stirrat, a birding friend of Skips. Rotary Park is a diverse area with Lake Ontario on one side along with woods and marsh on the other. We did find some several species of shorebirds including pectoral sandpipers, lesser yellowlegs, least sandpiper, and a stilt sandpiper. Cranberry Marsh in Whitby is inland and drew lots of birders and photographers. The birding highlight for me was the trumpeter swan family that came quite close. Pretending to be a photographer changes one’s perspective. Black-capped chickadees are so widespread they are rarely worthy of mention but here we encountered a totally habituated individual that would perch on human hands. (I envision a book, Chickadees in the Mist) Not only is the red squirrel arguably the most comely of our eastern squirrels, it occurs in Illinois in but one county. It is therefore not a species I see often, and although it is certainly common within its range, finding one that proved to be a good photographic model elevated the personal significance of the experience. Our last stop was at Thickson Woods where the highlight was meeting Glenn Coady, a local birder of longstanding who provided me with information on the passenger pigeon in Ontario when I was researching the book.
Usually being dropped off at the airport concludes the adventures. But there was something odd when I walked into the American terminal and things seemed to be in suspended motion. The ticket agents were all engaged in long conversations with customers. I soon learned the problem: a contract employee set fire to a suburban Chicago air traffic control center where he worked, bringing O’Hare and Midway Airports to a halt. Two-thousand flights were cancelled. The ticket agent I wound up getting was totally stymied on what to do. I wanted to do something that suggested progress. She summoned someone else who seemed better able to handle the challenge. He routed me from Toronto to LaGuardia because that was possible: camping out at LaGuardia seemed the likely prospect. (While the two of them debated my fate, I did offer to go home with one or the other and sleep in the garage or in the back yard with the poodles (that last was just a guess.)) Later as I waited for that flight, I again encountered the second ticket agent and he had a great idea: he said the few flights from New York to Chicago were so delayed I might be able to get to New York in time to catch one of them. And he was right..
Catbird at Rotary Park
My first trip to the Smithsonian, in June, was to present a lecture. My second trip, from September 21 to 23, was to present, with David Mrazek, our documentary, From Billions to None. (David’s wife is from the DC area, so his family of three took the opportunity to make a vacation out of the event staying with relatives.) Back in June, I was invited by long-time friend Melissa Weidenfeld to stay at her family’s house. It turned out she was out of town during the duration of my trip but her husband, David, an ornithologist with the American Bird Conservancy, proved to be a most accommodating host. He picked me up at Dulles and we headed out to Virginia horse country for some birding and to meet up with Mike Carpenter and Karen Anderson for dinner.
We drove through some lovely hilly landscapes and did a short hike at Sky Meadows State Park. Birding was slow, but then it was in mid-afternoon. Our most memorable bird- at least the only one I can recall- was a pied-billed grebe. We then headed towards the Red Fox Inn, a terrific restaurant in Middleburg, Virginia. It took a phone call to right a logistical confusion between the two parties but we met and all was well.
David dropped me off at the museum the next morning and that is where I spent the day. I met and had lunch with Carla Dove, who was trained by the late legendary Roxie Laybourne. These women had as a primary task identifying birds by individual feathers. When a plane has to land because the engine sucked in a bird, the gooey avian remains are sent to Carla to identify. When I met her, she was talking to an officer in the Air Force who had brought her some specimens.
One of the unexpected pleasures of speaking far and wide is reconnecting with people I may not have seen in decades. (Just a week ago after giving a talk in Oak Park, IL, a member of the audience came up to me who proved to be my fourth grade teacher whom I have not seen since 1964. ) Someone who falls into that category is Gary Graves who grew up near Little Rock and has been a lifelong birder. Currently Chair of the Vertebrate Zoology Department and Curator of Birds, he says this on the Smithsonian website: “I am unapologetically curious about natural history and the pathways by which natural history observations catalyze significant ecological and evolutionary discoveries.” We have corresponded but I knew it had been a long time since we encountered each other in person: he reminded me that the last time was 1968 when he was visiting relatives in a suburb close to where I lived.
Another treat while in DC was seeing my dear friend Kate Garchinsky, a superb artist who came all the way up from Philadelphia to attend the presentation. After the movie, she, David W. and I had dinner with Michael Braun, a research scientist in the Smithsonian’s Department of Vertebrate Zoology. One of Mike’s current projects involves the red siskin, a bird I was not familiar with before. A species inhabiting Venezuela and Guinea, it has been driven to near extinction due to the cage bird trade. But the popularity of the species is not the bird itself as much as its use for creating orange or red canaries. Mike’s efforts seek to reverse that trend by working with South American conservationists.
So there are people you know but whom you have not seen in a long time or people you know of but have never actually met. The same goes for specific birds. Not surprisingly, I relished the opportunity to examine the passenger pigeon trays. I was not looking for any bird in particular but I know the records so well I felt as if I made a major discovery when I came across two specimens I knew well. There are probably close to 2,000 passenger pigeons in the world’s collection but no known member of the species has ever been shot farther west than the one slain on September 10, 1867 in the West Humboldt Mountains of Nevada. It is an immature female and was taken during the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel– The King Survey (1867-1872).
The second specimen is significant because it was one of the last ones ever killed in the wild. The shooter took this pigeon, another immature, on July 27, 1898 two miles east of Owensboro, Kentucky. There had been false rumors published in a range of newspapers and magazines that the Smithsonian was offering rewards for passenger pigeon specimens. Presumably to receive his share, the fellow put the bird in an envelope and mailed it to the museum. The specimen as it lays in its drawer today manifests the partial decomposition to be expected of an untreated corpse going through the mails from Kentucky to Washington DC over the course of several days during mid-summer.
It was all of a 60 mile or so drive to Ann Arbor where I was to give the annual William Farrand Memorial Lecture at the University of Michigan Museum of Natural History the following evening. There was no grilling or very much talking of any kind as I crossed the border and headed to my destination. I parked in the appropriate lot and walked around to the entrance while banners quivered in the breeze. Amy Harris, director of the museum, and Gene Dillenburg, head of exhibits, have been exceptionally supportive of Project Passenger Pigeon from early on. I was certainly familiar with the downloadable panels Gene’s team had made but I was anxious to see the actual exhibit that was created for the museum.
A brief digression. Michigan is one of the msot important states or provinces in the history of the passenger pigeon. Many of the big nestings during the 1870s, including the last large nesting at Petoskey in 1878, occurred within its borders. Michigan was the one and only jurisdiction to ever ban all killing of the species (unfortunately that law was passed in 1897 when there were virtually no wild birds left, but it was nice gesture.) And the first book length account of the bird, The Passenger Pigeon, was authored by William Mershon, a life-long resident of Saginaw in 1907. Besides having a sizable collection of passenger pigeon skins and mounts, it has nets and stools that were used in the hunting of the birds. Mershon bequeathed much of his materials to the museum, including mounts and the original Louis Agassiz Fuertas painting he commissioned for his book.
The museum did indeed have a wonderful exhibit. A block or so away is the building that houses the universities School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE). It had evidently been a good mast year the previous fall as passenger pigeons were evident all over the place. There were pigeon tracks stenciled on the ground to guide the visitor from the musuem to the SNRE. Then on the steps leading up to the school were colorful chalk depictions of the species. But the big roost was inside largely through the works of Sara Aldertein-Gonzalez. Sara is an Associate Research Scientist who specializes on the ecology of the Great Lakes. But she also loves art. In the interdisciplinary spirit that permeates SNRE, she identified an under used space and received permission to turn it into an art gallery. Lots of places participated in Fold the Flock to create origami passenger pigeons. But Sara had her students make their own individualized paper pigeons, and this flock hovered below the ceiling. The gallery itself was used to display the marvelous creation of Ann Rosenthal and Stefi Domike entitled Moving Targets. Their work draws a parallel between the destruction of the pigeons and the forced emigration of their Jewish grandparents from the Ukraine. They augmented images and story with the drawings of other artists to form a really unforgettable exhibition. (Besides Ann Arbor, the piece was hosted by Duquesne University, Brushwood at Ryerson (near Chicago, and Cornell University.
A reception at SNRE was planned for the appearance of both me and Ann. We each gave short talks which was followed by questions. This was the second and final time this year that I met an elderly person who as a youth knew older people who had once hunted passenger pigeons. One degree of separation . . . The formal talk at the museum was well attended and drew friends like Destry Hoffard and Ralph Finch, who were instrumental in helping me find historic photos.
The Chippewa Nature Center in Midland, Michigan is a place I had visited once before. Kyle Bagnall is a naturalist who works there whom I met in April 2011 when we held a Project Passenger Pigeon organizing meeting at Michigan State University. Kyle agreed to be the Michigan coordinator and did a superb job. Over 30 organizations within the state offered displays or programming. I was invited to give a talk for the nature center’s Bioblitz in the afternoon while Kyle was scheduled to give his passenger pigeon presentation (Michigan oriented) at 11 am. I had very much wanted to see how other people presented the pigeon saga but this would be the only opportunity. I arrived at Chippewa in plenty of time and was delighted by Kyle’s talk. There were wonderful quotes from old sources I was not familiar with: but that is not really surprising, as Kyle is a first-rate researcher in addition to being a fine presenter. Among the visitors was a class from Alma College led by ornithologist Mike Bishop, who participated in the bioblitz by operating a bird banding station. He and his band of students met us for dinner prior to my talk.
As I scheduled travel for 2014, one of my great fears is that I would some how double book or forget a booking. Neither of those things ever happened, thank goodness, but the worst planning I made involved the evening talk in Midland and the following morning. Here is he e-mail I sent Kyle on September 15 when I realized what I had done: ” I do not know how this happened but I just made a horrifying discovery. I am scheduled to leave for Washington DC at 7 am on Sept 21! So that means when I am done with my talk at Chippewa in the evening of Sept 20, I need to head straight back for home. Eeek! I have never used Red Bull type products but this might be a first.”
I did buy a bottle of 5-Hour Energy in case I needed a jolt over the course of the five hour drive home. As I was leaving the nature center close to 9pm someone asked me if I wanted to take some homemade apple cider donuts (coated in spice sugar, no less). I no longer eat donuts (as is apparent by my well-sculpted physiognomy) but heck I took a couple anyway, if just to be polite. Well as I approached the Indiana border, my energy level began to sag and I gobbled a donut. Somewhat later, impressed by the first one, I consumed the remaining one. Not long after, I suddenly was wracked by chest pains, severe heart burn I was confident. The upper gut had processed the sweetened deep friend dough and let me know it was unhappy. But nothing relives drowsiness and kicks you into alertness better than extreme pain. The miles just passed by as I cruised homeward with ease. By the time I arrived, the I felt fine and could fall asleep for the few hours I had allotted.