The Bald Eagle is a large raptor, dark brown overall, with a distinctive white head and tail as an adult. Bald Eagles also have a bright yellow beak and feet.
FemaleSame as male.
Seasonal change in appearanceNone.
All brown, then gaining white mottling until reaching adult plumage in 4-5 years.
HabitatUsually near large bodies of water such as coasts, lakes, or large rivers.
DietPrimarily fish, but also ducks, turtles, and carrion.
BehaviorParticipates in both predation and scavenging, sometimes stealing prey from other birds.
RangeOccurs throughout most of North America. After serious declines due to the pesticide DDT, the species has responded well to recovery efforts and now breeds in all of the lower 48 states, as well as in Alaska and Canada. Large concentrations gather along rivers and reservoirs in the winter months where open water remains.
Bent Life History
Visit the Bent Life History for extensive additional information on the Bald Eagle.
The shape of a bird's wing is often an indication of its habits and behavior. Fast flying birds have long, pointed wings. Soaring birds have long, broad wings. Different songbirds will have a slightly different wing shape. Some species look so much alike (Empidonax flycatchers) that scientists sometimes use the length of specific feathers to confirm a species' identification.
Wing images from the University of Puget Sound, Slater Museum of Natural History
Fun FactsThe Bald Eagle has been designated by Congress as our nation’s symbol. Its population recovery is a great success resulting from the Endangered Species Act.
VocalizationsCall is a series of loud and rather high-pitched, sharp kik-kik-kik-kiks.
Usually placed in a tall tree or on a cliff, but may be on the ground if such sites are not available. Nest is a very large platform or bowl of sticks, often remodeled and added to from year to year.
Number: 2, but sometimes 1-3.Color: Dull white.
Incubation and fledging:
Young hatch at about 35 days and fledge at about 11-12 weeks, with an additional dependency period of about 2 months.