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Louisiana Waterthrush

These small birds can be spotted near rivers and streams in the eastern side of the United States.

The loud song of the Louisiana Waterthrush is one of the first warbler songs to be heard each spring. After its nesting season along flowing streams, it is also one of the first species to depart on fall migration. Unlike some other songbirds, Louisiana Waterthrushes are thought to migrate alone rather than in groups.

One of the most characteristic features of the Louisiana Waterthrush is its walk. It pumps its rump and tail up and down in an exaggerated motion while walking. This movement is created by flexing of the birds’ ankle joints while walking.


Description of the Louisiana Waterthrush


The Louisiana Waterthrush has brownish upperparts, white underparts with heavy black streaking, and a long, whitish supercilium that usually widens behind the eye.  Rear flanks may show buffy.  Length: 6 in.  Wingspan: 10 in.

Louisiana Waterthrush

Photograph © Greg Lavaty.


Sexes similar.

Seasonal change in appearance



Fall immatures are similar to adults.


Louisiana Waterthrushes inhabit bottomlands, wooded swamps and streamsides.

Louisiana Waterthrush

Photograph © Greg Lavaty.


Louisiana Waterthrushes eat insects and small crustaceans.


Louisiana Waterthrushes forage on the ground, often at the water’s edge seeking both aquatic and terrestrial insects. They frequently bob their rear end up and down.


Louisiana Waterthrushes breed across much of the eastern U.S. They winter in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The population appears to be increasing.

louisiana waterthrush

Photograph © Greg Lavaty.

More information:

Bent Life History

Visit the Bent Life History for extensive additional information on the Louisiana Waterthrush.

Fun Facts

Louisiana Waterthrushes migrate earlier in the spring than Northern Waterthrushes.

Louisiana Waterthrushes are typically found in areas with faster moving water than Northern Waterthrushes.

Louisiana Waterthrushes sing a great deal until the female’s eggs are laid.


The song is a series of clear whistles followed by rapid chips.  A buzzy flight call is also given.


Similar Species

  • Northern Waterthrush
    Very similar Northern Waterthrushes have more yellowish underparts and a yellowish supercilium that narrows behind the eye. Streaked throat. 


The Louisiana Waterthrush’s nest is a mass of leaves, moss, bark, and twigs and is lined with finer materials. It is placed under an overhanging bank or within the roots of an upturned tree.

Number: Usually lay 4-6 eggs.
Color: Whitish with darker markings.

Incubation and fledging:
The young hatch at about 12-14 days and fledge at about 10 days, though remaining dependent on the adults for some time.


Bent Life History of the Louisiana Waterthrush

Published by the Smithsonian Institution between the 1920s and the 1950s, the Bent life history series of monographs provide an often colorful description of the birds of North America. Arthur Cleveland Bent was the lead author for the series. The Bent series is a great resource and often includes quotes from early American Ornithologists, including Audubon, Townsend, Wilson, Sutton and many others.

Bent Life History for the Louisiana Waterthrush – the common name and sub-species reflect the nomenclature in use at the time the description was written.


The earlier ornithologists confused the two waterthrushes. Neither Wilson nor Nuttall recognized two species, and their accounts evidently referred partly to one and partly to the other. For example, Wilson (1832) speaks of one as passing through Pennsylvania to the north, and mentions the other as living in the cane brakes and swamps of Louisiana; both of these he called “Water Thrush: Turdus aquaticus”; but his description fits the Louisiana waterthrush, as we now know it. Nuttall’s (1832) account is similar, though he uses the name noveboracensis, and his description follows Wilson. Audubon (1841) evidently recognized and figured both species, though his figure of the northern bird is apparently notalilis, and most of his remarks seem to refer to motacilla. Both species, however, had been recognized and named previously by European ornithologists, as shown in their present names.

The haunts of the Louisiana waterthrush have been variously described. Dr. Edgar A. Mearns (1879) writes: “Its notes cannot be dissociated from the sound of gurgling, rushing waters. * * * Even a casual allusion to this little bird recalls, to the mind of the collector, a bright picture of clear mountain streams, with their falls and eddies, their dams of rocks and fallen tree-trunks, their level stretches flowing over bright, pebbly bottoms, with mossy banks and rocky ferneries, and their darting minnows and dace; for only in such wild localities is the Water Wagtail at home.”

Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (1874) state that in the Wabash Valley, where it is an abundant summer resident, “it inhabits the dampest situations in the bottom-lands, the borders of creeks, lagoons, and swamps, living there in company with the Prothonotary Warbler.” And in Knox County, Md., William Brewster (1878) found it breeding on “the edge of a lonely forest pool in the depth of a cypress swamp.” Although this species apparently shows a preference for the vicinity of running water, it seems content to live in surroundings where such streams are not to be found; however, the presence of water seems to be a decided necessity, hence it deserves its name.

Richard C. Harlow tells me that, “in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania, where the northern waterthrush is very common and the Louisiana a common breeder, the normal nesting habitat of the northern species is in rhododendron bogs amid damp surroundings, but where water is slow-moving or stagnant, and where upturned roots of fallen, moss-covered trees abound. The Louisiana is here normally a bird of the fast-flowing trout streams, nesting in the banks or gullies near by. Both species may nest in overlapping zones, but they are much more -frequent in the respective habitats indicated above.”

Nesting: One of the earliest, and one of the best, accounts of the nesting of the Louisiana waterthrush is by Mr. Brewster (1878) ; in Knox County, md: a large tree had fallen into the shallow water, and the earth adhering to the roots formed a nearly vertical hut somewhat irregular wall about six feet in height and ten or twelve In breadth. Near the upper edge of this, in a cavity among the finer roots, was placed the nest, which, but for the situation and the peculiar character of Its composition, would have been exceedingly conspicuous. * * The nest, which is before me, Is exceedingly large and bulky, measuring externally 3.50 inches in diameter, by 8 inches in length, and 8.50 inches in depth. Its outer wall, a solid mass of soggy dead leaves plastered tightly together by the mud adhering to their surfaces, rises In the form of a rounded parapet, the outer edge of which was nicely graduated to conform to the edge of the earthy bank In which it was placed. In one corner of this mass, and well back, is the nest proper, a neatly rounded, cup-shaped hollow, measuring 2.50 inches In diameter by 2.50 inches in depth. This inner nest is composed of small twigs and green mosses, with a lining of dry grasses and a few hairs of squirrels or other mammals arranged circularly.

A second nest was found 2 days later on the opposite side of the same pond; it was similarly located and constructed, but square in shape to fit the hollow. Another was found “on the shore of an isolated little woodland pond. The site, in this instance, was at the foot of a huge stump, the nest being placed in a cavity in the rotten wood.”

A very different nesting site, in a gorge near Ithaca, N. Y., is thus described in some notes sent to me by Dr. Alexander F. Skutch: “At length, I entered a very narrow and deep portion of the gorge, into which the stream poured by way of a murmuring fall, and then proceeded along the bottom through a trough in the rock. The walls of the chasm rose steeply up to a height of 40 or 50 feet, either in precipitous slopes overgrown with hemlock, spiked maple and Canadian yew, or else in quite vertical cliffs of bare rock, their faces broken into a myriad fragments by the shattered edges of the strata. Here and there, rooted in a deeper niche in the cliff, a belated columbine held its nodding scarlet blossoms.

“As I passed downward through the narrow defile, an inconspicuous brown bird darted out from a niche almost at the foot of the wall to my left, and flew quietly downstream ahead of me. The brown feathers which concealed them gone, the whitish eggs caught my eye in a twinkling; and there, in plain view, was my first Louisiana waterthrush’s nest, scarcely concealed in its little niche in the moss-covered cliff. It was a firm, well-made but shallow cup constructed, on a foundation of dead leaves, of fine herbaceous stems, more half-decayed leaves interspersed with a little moss, and lined up fine rootlets and fibers, I believe, from decayed fern stipes.”

Of 14 Pennsylvania nests, for which T. E. McMullen has sent me the data, all but one were over or close to water along the banks of streams, either in the banks or under the roots of trees; the other was in the upturned roots of a tree in a swamp.

I have seen but two nests of the Louisiana waterthrush in southern New England. The first was near the eastern limit of the breeding range of the species, in Kingston swamp, R. I., a locality described under the northern waterthrush, and was within 100 yards of occupied nests of the northern species and of the winter wren. Located in the upturned roots of a fallen tree, 12 inches above the pool of water that filled the cavity left by the uprooted tree, it was made of dead leaves, moss, and rootlets, and was lined with finer pieces of the same materials and with some white deer hair.

At Hadlyme, Conn., on May 19, 1934, while following two companions along the banks of a small, qiliet brook that wound its way through some low, swampy woods of maples, black and yellow birches, oaks, beeches, dogwoods, ironwoods, laurels, and azaleas, with plenty of skunkcabbages, I saw a bird flush out behind them and fly across the brook. Its nest was soon found deeply hidden between the roots of and directly under the trunk of a large yellow birch within a yard of the brook. The nest, on a foundation of dead leaves, was made of fine grasses and rootlets, and was lined with the reddish, fruiting stems of mosses.

A nest found by Clarence F. Stone near Branchport, N. Y., was beautifully concealed under a mass of ferns that overhung a bank.

Eggs: From 4 to 6 eggs constitute the usual set for the Louisiana waterthrush, 5 being the commonest number. The nest described above by Dr. Skutch held the remarkable number of 10 eggs, but these were probably the product of two females, for, otherwise, we have no record of more than 6 eggs in a nest, except where cowbirds’ eggs had been added.

The eggs are ovate to short ovate and more or less glossy, usually only slightly lustrous. The ground color is white or creamy white, and the egg is speckled, spotted or blotehed with “bay,” “auburn,” “chestnut,” or “hazel,” with under spottings of “light vinaceous-drab,” “pale purplish drab,” or “purplish gray.” The eggs vary considerably, and may be almost immaculate, very finely speckled, or boldly blotched. In some cases the speckles are confluent over the entire egg and practically obscure the ground color, giving it a huffy white appearance. In general the markings are heavier at the large end. The gray spottings seem to be somewhat more prominent than on the eggs of the northern waterthrush. The measurements of 50 eggs average 19.9 by 15.5 millimeters; the eggs showing the four extremes measure 22.1 by 15.6, 21.0 by 16.3, 17.8 by 14.8, and 18.3 by 14.7 millimeters (Harris).

Young: The period of incubation is said to be about 14 days. The female probably does all of the incubating and brooding, but both parents assist in feeding and caring for the young, which are said to remain in the nest about 10 days. When partially fledged the colors of the young match their surroundings so well and t.hey keep so still, with eyes closed, that t.hey are easily overlooked, even in an open nest. The young are cared for by their parents for some time after they leave the nest and while they remain hidden in the surrounding underbrush.

Plumages: Dr. Dwight (1900) records the natal down of the young Louisiana waterthrush as deep olive-brown, and describes the juvenal plumage as “above, deep olive-brown, without cinnamon edgings [thus differing from the young of not’eboraeensi8]. Wings and tail darker, the coverts faintly tipped with cinnamon. Conspicuous line above and behind the eye dull white. Below, yellowish white, washed on the sides and crissum with cinnamon and narrowly streaked on the chin, throat, breast and sides with dull olive-brown.”

The postjuvenal molt, involving the contour plumage and the wing coverts but not the rest of the wings or the tail, begins early in July. This produces the first winter plumage, which is similar to that of the juvenal. Dr. Dwight describes the first winter plumage as “above, deep olive-brown, much darker on the crown, which is bordered by conspicuous white superciliary stripes. The wing coverts are dark and without edgings. Below, white, buffy tinged and strongly washed on sides of the throat, flanks and on crissum with ochraceous buff. The chin is faintly flecked, the breast and sides streaked with olive-brown. Lower eyelid white; anteorbital spot and postocular streak dusky.”

The first nuptial plumage is “acquired by marked wear through which the buff tints are largely lost, the flecks of the chin and the breast streaks diminished.” Subsequently plumages are acquired by a complete postnuptial molt in July and by wear during the winter, the winter plumages of old and young birds being practically indistinguishable.

The sexes are alike in all plumages, and the molts are the same.

Food: “Examination of the stomachs of 4 birds of this species from Florida showed their food to consist chiefly of insects and spiders. The insects included dragon flies, crane-fly larvae, grouse locusts, beetles, bugs, ants, caterpillars, and scale insects. Two of the birds had eaten small mollusks, and one had taken a killifish” (Howell, 1932).

Five stomachs, collected in Puerto Rico by Dr. Wetmore (1916), contained 98 percent animal matter and 2 percent vegetable food. “Remains of flies (33 percent) were present in three stomachs. Water beetles (Parnidae and others) were found in three stomachs and leaf beetles in two. In one bird was a tree hopper and in two others were indeterminate bug remains. A dragon fly was found once and spider remains and bits of a scorpion twice. Three-fourths of the contents of one stomach was composed of fragments of a snail, and in another was found a tree toad (Eleutherodactylus sp.). Two birds had eaten seeds, in one case those of the aji (Ca psicum sp.) .”

Behavior: The two species of waterthrushes are much alike in their habits and movements; both of them are walkers and both have the peculiar habit of tilting the tail upward as if a spring holding it down had been suddenly released; both spend most of their time on or near the ground walking gracefully along the margins of streams or pools, or even in the shallow water, seemingly as devoted to the vicinity of water as is the water ouzel to the western mountain streams. Dr. Mearns (1879) describes the behavior of the Louisiana waterthrush very aptly as follows:

It rwza about (never hopping) over the stones and moss, gleaning along the sandy margin of the stream. Occasionally you may see It alight upon the witch-hazel, or alder bushes, that border the water, running dexterously along their branches. It always accompanies every employment with a Sandpiperlike, tilting motion of its body. Now It starts off in pursuit of one of its fellows. They fly through the forest with astonishing velocity, uttering a sharp twittering note, that sounds like the noise produced by striking two pebbles together. As they emerge higher up the stream, the chase is rellnquished for the time, and you are surprised as they fly past to hear the clear notes of Its song uttered as distinctly in mid-air as when perched; then the chase Is renewed, but as they fly back again, one of the birds rises high up in the air above its pursuer, and then flutters slowly downward, pouring out Its sweet song as it descends, mingling its cadence with the sound of the brook: the whole effect in perfect harmony with the spirit of the place. These performances take place oftenest early In the morning, about sunrise.

Voice: Aretas A. Saunders sends me the following study of the song:

“The song of the Louisiana waterthrush is a loud, high-pitched one, exceedingly pleasing in its wild, sweet quality. Songs in my records vary from 6 to 19 notes, averaging about 11. The song is distinctly divisible into two parts. The first part consists of 2 to 4 rather slow notes or slurs, usually on or near the highest pitch, the notes most frequently being slurred upward. The second part consists of a series of 3 to 17 very rapid, twittering notes quite variable in form but usually descending in pitch. The average number of these notes is 8, and they are delivered two to three times as fast as those of the first part. The first part is distinctly sibilant and the second rather chattery, with rarely any of the liquid consonants that characterize the northern waterthrush.

“The pitch of the songs varies from C sharp”’ to E” ”. Single songs vary from two tones to an octave in range, averaging about three tones. The song begins high and usually becomes lower at or near the end. In all but 6 of my 49 records the first notes are on the highest pitch. In 30 of the records the last note is the lowest. The pitch of the rapid notes in the second part of the song is exceedingly variable, rarely with two notes in succession on the same pitch. The pitch varies up and down between single notes, though the general trend is usually downward.

“The song, in my timed records, varies from 2 to 31/s seconds, but several records that were not timed may have been somewhat longer. The notes of the first part are delivered at a rate of only two or three to the second, but those of the second part may be at a rate of six to ten; however, individual notes in the second part vary in length, so that the time is very irregular.

“Louisiana waterthrushes sing abundantly when they first arrive. As nesting starts the song is less frequent. I believe that individual birds cease singing for a time, perhaps for the period of incubation. In June the song seems to be longer and more elaborate. Most of my June records have more notes than those of April and May. The song ceases in late June, but I have too few records to give average dates. It is sometimes revived in July, evidently after the molt.”

Albert B. Brand’s (1938) records of frequencies in bird songs show the song of this species to be somewhat higher in pitch than that of the northern watcrthrush, the vibrations per second varying from 6,600 to 2,475, with an approximate mean of 4,000, about the average of passerine song.

Two impressions of the song are worth noting. Dr. Skutch says of hearing it in a gorge near Ithaca, N. Y.: “A Louisiana waterthrush, perching upon a twig of a hemlock tree far above the stream, was singing in a ringing voice that rose above the murmur of the falling waters. Chirp, chirp, chirp, chirp, his song began boldly; then, as though he were suddenly confused in his recitation, broke into a lisping and incoherent garble impossible to paraphrase in human sounds. Such is always the character of their song; they have never learned the end of it.” And Dr. George M. Sutton (Todd, 1940) describes the startling song as follows:

Three distinctly repeated notes introduce this striking volley, which Is entirely unlike the song of other warbiers and much stronger and more prolonged than that of the species’ near relative, the Northern Waterthrush. It Is delivered either from the ground or from a tree, and sometimes even during flight. The head of the singer is thrown well back, his whole body is shaken with energy, and his usually restless tail is for the moment allowed to hang at an easy, downward angle. * * The evening flight song, as I have heard it in Greene County, is a memorable performance. In the gathering dusk the singer himself is not seen. The song seems to be dashing here and there. It sweeps downward in jerking stages as the final measures decrease in volume. It Is prolonged, and the latter half Is a repetition of tinkling notes that fade away to nothingness as the bird plunges back into the darkness whence he came.

Field marks: The Louisiana waterthrush most closely resembles the northern waterthrush, from which it can be distinguished by its broad, white superciliary stripe and its whiter under parts with less and duller streaking, its chin and throat being nearly immaculate. It looks a little like its relative, the ovenbird, but the latter has an eye ring and no stripe over the eye.

Enemies: This waterthrush is a frequent victim of the cowbird, except in heavily wooded regions, where the cowbird is less likely to penetrate. Dr. Friedmann (1929) lists 3 nests that contained 4 eggs of the cowbird, 7 containing 3, and 45 other nests that held 1 or 2 eggs of this parasite. Three or four eggs of the cowbird are likely to cause the waterthrush to desert the nest.

Harold S. Peters (1936) lists only one tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalwstris Packard, as an external parasite.

Winter: Dr. Skutch contributes the following account: “In Central America, the Louisiana waterthrush is a moderately abundant fall and spring transient, but in most parts at best a rare winter resident. During the southward migration, at least, it passes along both sides of the Cordillera, but in greater numbers on the Caribbean side, from late August well into October. As a winter resident, it appears to be confined to the Caribbean lowlands in both Guatemala and Costa Rica. For the spring months, there are records for the Caribbean lowlands and the central highlands, but apparently none for lower elevations on the Pacific side: a gap which may some day be filled. This, at least, is the story told by the few records before me as I write; but it is likely that some modifications of statement would be made necessary by a greater number of observations. Both the Louisiana and the northern waterthrushes are shy and difficult to approach while in Central America. It is not easy to see them sufficiently well to distinguish them in the field, especially where the presence of Seiuru8 noiie6oracen.~is ~wtabilis, with its white superciliary lines, adds to the possibility of confusion with the Louisiana waterthrush. As a result, I have seen far more waterthrushes than I have distinguished as to species and set down in my records.

“While in Central America, the Louisiana waterthrush is usually seen foraging along t.he shores of streams or other bodies of water, whether rocky, sandy, or muddy. It is always alone and usually silent.

“Central American occurrences are: Guatemala: Motagua Valley near Los Amates, not uncommon spring transient, April 20 to May 2, 1932; Sierra de Tecp~n, 8,500 feet, rare transient, February 12 and 28, 1933 (probably same individual on both dates). Honduras: Tela, abundant fall transient, arriving August 25, rare winter visitant, January and February. Costa Rica: Caribbean lowlands to 2,000 feet: fairly abundant fall transient, Rio Sicsola, September 3, 1904, and El Hogar, August 28, 1906 (Carriker); rare winter resident, Pejivalle, January 23, 1934. Central highlands: Volc~n Iraz ii, October 13 (Underwood) and San Jos6, March 9, 1889 (Cherrie). Basin of El General, 2,000: 3,000 feet, uncommon fall transient, September 30, 1936 and October 14, 1942.”

From Central America, the three waterthrushes extend their winter ranges southward into northern South America and eastward to the Bahamas and the West Indies. In Florida, they seem to be rare or casual in winter.

Dr. Wetmore (1916) says: “The Louisiana water-thrush is a fairly common winter visitant to Porto Rico. The birds may arrive in September, though there are no positive records, and the first that I saw were at Cayey January 17. They were common in the mangrove swamps along the coast and inland followed the rapid streams, frequenting the parts bordered by brushy growth or running through coffee and banana plantations. The call note is noticeably higher than that of the other waterthrush, from which it can readily be distinguished.”

Range: Eastern Canada and the United States, the West Indies, Central America, and northwestern South America.

Breeding range: The Louisiana waterthrush breeds north to southeastern Minnesota (Hutchinson, Minneapolis, and southern Pine County) ; central Wisconsin (probably Durand, Reedsburg, and New London); southern Michigan (Grand Rapids, Lansing, Flint, South Lyon, and probably Port Huron); southern Ontario (Komoka, London, and Webster’s Falls); central and eastern New York (Medina, Rochester, Canandaigua, Utica, Point Comfort, Warren, and Port Henry); southern Vermont (rarely Brattleboro) ; and central-southern New Hampshire (Harrisville and Dublin). East to New Hampshire (Dublin); more regularly to central-southern Massachusetts (Sheffield, Springfield, and Ware); Rhode Island; central New Jersey (Crosswick, Princeton, and Elizabeth); central Maryland (Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge and Wildacres) ; eastern central Virginia (Lawrenceville and Ashland); central and northeastern North Carolina (Clinton, Garner, Greenville, and Walke); central South Carolina (Aiken and Columbia) ; and southwestern and central Georgia (Blakely and Macon). South to Georgia (Blakely) ; southern Alabama (Abbeville); southern Mississippi (Brooklyn); northern and southeastern Louisiana (Mansfield, Bienville, Como, Bains, and Baton Rouge); and northeastern Texas (~orsicana). West to northeastern Texas (Corsicana); eastern Oklahoma (Tulsa County, Washita River, and Kiowa Agency); eastern Kansas (Manhattan, Topeka, and Neosha River); eastern Nebraska (London and Fontandlle Forest) ; central western and central northern Iowa (Pottawattamie County and Emmetsburg); and southeastern Minnesota (Hutehinson).

Winter range: The Louisiana waterthrush winters north to southem Mexico; Jalisco (Mazatl~n); Morelos (Cuernavaca); Puebla (Metlatoyuca); Veracruz (Jalapa, Motzorongo); Tabasco (Frontera); and YucatAn (M~rida); Cuba (Bahia Honda, Isle of Pines, Trinidad, and Guamo); the eastern Bahamas (Bimini and Berry); and Puerto Rico. East to Puerto Rico; the Virgin Islands; and the northern Lesser Antilles (Barbuda, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, and Dominica). South to the Lesser Antilles (Dominica); central and northeastern Colombia (Santa Marta, Villavincencia, La Bonda); and western Panamil (Perm~). West to western Panam4 (Perm6); and southern Mexico (Jalisco). Also winters in Bermuda, and there is one sight record from Trinidad. Accidental in California (Mecca).

Migration: Late dates of spring departure are: Colombia: Fusugasug~, March 24. Costa Rica: El General, March 23. Guatemala: near Quirigu~, May 2. YucatAn: M6rida, March 29. Veracmuz: Arroyo del Sitio, March 25. San Luis Potosi: Valles, March 25; Tamaulipas: G6mez Farias region, April 4; Chihuahua: Alamos, March 28. Trinidad: April 23. Puerto Rico: Cartagena Lagoon, April 22. Haiti: Rivi~re Seche near Fonds des N~gres, April 2. Cuba: Villalba, April 18.

Early dates of spring arrival are: Florida: Lower Suwannee River, March 10; Pensacola, March 16. Alabama: Woodbine, March 9. Georgia: Atlanta and Fitzgerald, March 9. South Carolina: Spartanburg, March 20. North Carolina: Raleigh, March 14 (average of 23 years, March 29). Virginia: Naruna, March 8; Rockbridge County, April 2. West Virginia: French Creek, March 19 (average of 17 years, March 31). District of Columbia: Washington, March 25 (average of 31 years, April 9). Maryland: Forest Glen, March 26. Delaware: Kent and Sussex Counties, April 1 (average of 16 years, April 10). Pennsylvania: Sewickley, March 30. New Jersey: Newark, March 28. New York: New York City, April 2; Ithaca, April 4. Connecticut: Kensington, March 30. Rhode Island: Hopkinton, April 10. Massachusetts: Easthampton, April 5. Vermont: West Dummerston, April 24. New Hampshire: New Hampton, May 5. Louisiana: Baton Rouge region, March 14. Mississippi: Saucier, March 8. Arkansas: Rogers, March 10. Tennessee: Nashville, March 16 (average of 12 years, March 22). Kentucky: l3arbourville and Bardstown, March 20. Missouri: southeastern, March 12; St. Louis, March 29. Illinois: Forest Park, March 28; Murphysboro and Springfield, March 31. Indiana: Monroe County, March 20; Helrnsburg, March 30. Ohio: central Ohio, March 7 (average April 7). Michigan: Battle Creek, April 6. Ontario: Toronto, April 1 (1950); London, April 22. Iowa: Iowa City, April 2. Wisconsin: Milwaukee, April 4 (1948), April 7 (1947); St. Croix Falls, April 15. Minnesota: Lanesboro and Minneapolis, April 17 (average of 21 years for southern Minnesota, April 25). Texas: Refugio County, March 17; Gainesville, March 21. Oklahoma: Tulsa County, April 8. Kansas: Independence, April 1. Nebraska: Peru, April 20. South Dakota: Sioux Falls, April 28.

Late dates of fall departure are: South Dakota: Sioux Falls, September 8. Nebraska: Lincoln, September 30. Minnesota: Minneapolis, September 20 (average of 8 years for southern Minnesota, August 27). Wisconsin: Reedsburg, September 27. Iowa: Wall Lake, September 29. Ontario-Credit Run, Peel County, August 23; Point Pelee, August 28. Michigan: Kalamazoo, October 18. Ohio: Hillsboro, October 10; central Ohio, October 11 (average, September 18). Indiana: Indianapolis, October 23. Illinois: Evanston, September 28. Missouri: Columbia, October 24. Kentucky: Bowling Green, October 18. Tennessee: Elizabethton, October 30. Arkansas: northwestern, October 4. Mississippi: Gulfport, October 29. Louisiana: Baton Rouge region, October 25. Massachusetts: Lenox, August 23. Connecticut: Groton, August 15. New York: New York City, October 3 and November 24. New Jersey: Morristown, October 20. Pennsylvania: Renovo, October 10. Delaware: Kent and Sussex Counties, September 28 (average, September 15). Maryland: Baltimore County, September 24. District of Columbia: Washington, October 4 (average of 8 years, September 19). West Virginia: French Creek, October 7. Virginia: Lawrenceville, October 19. North Carolina: Waynesville, September 29. Georgia: Macon, October 12. Alabama: Leighton, October 12. Florida: Alachua County, October 27; Fowey Rocks, November 2.

Early dates of fall arrival are: California: Mecca, August 17 (only record for State. Oklahoma: Tulsa County, August 9. Texas: Cove, August 29. Wiseonsin: Racine, August 9. Ohio: Buckeye Lake, August 27 (average, September 1). Illinois: La Grange, August 18; average for Chicago region, September 3. Tennessee: Eliiabethton, August 23. Mississippi: Bay St. Louis, July 4. Louisiana: Mandeville, August 18. New York: New York City, August 4. South Carolina: Mount Pleasant, July 13. Florida: Pensacola, July 13; Old Town, July 23; Fort Myers, August 4. Bermuda: September 4. Cuba: Habana, August 10. Jamaica: Trelawney, September 5. Dominican Republic: Puerto Plata, August 12. Puerto Rico: Mona Island, August 18. Antigua: September 19. Dominica: September 25. Tamaulipas: Rio Sabinas, August 5. Guatemala: Peten, August 11. Honduras: Lancetilla, August 24. Nicaragua: Escondido River, October 23. Costa Rica: El Hogar, August 28. Panam~: Cricamola, August 24.

Egg dates: Connecticut: 43 records, May 7 to June 6; 25 records, May 12 to 25, indicating the height of the season.

New Jersey: 26 records, May 11 to June 24; 21 records, May 17 to 22.

North Carolina: 10 records, April 2 to May 14.

Pennsylvania: 26 records, May 6 to June 6; 13 records, May 11 to 17 (Harris).

About the Author

Sam Crowe

Sam is the founder of He has been birding for over 30 years and has a world list of over 2000 species. He has served as treasurer of the Texas Ornithological Society, Sanctuary Chair of Dallas Audubon, Editor of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's "All About Birds" web site and as a contributing editor for Birding Business magazine. Many of his photographs and videos can be found on the site.

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