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Mourning Warbler

Named after their hoods, these birds are common in the eastern side of North America.

The Mourning Warbler’s breeding range adjoins that of the other three members of the Oporornis genus.  Mourning Warblers move north rather late in the spring from their wintering grounds in Central and South America. From the many records of dead Mourning Warblers found below towers and lighted buildings, its migration apparently takes place at night.

Female Mourning Warblers sit very tight on the nest when approached by a predator and are reluctant to flush. Both adults will sometimes perform a distraction display in which they pretend to be injured in order to lure a predator away from their nest.


Description of the Mourning Warbler


The Mourning Warbler has greenish upperparts, a gray head and throat, and yellow underparts.

Males have a black bib between the gray throat and yellow underparts.


Females have a paler gray head and throat.

Seasonal change in appearance

Fall birds are similar to spring birds.


Fall immatures have more greenish heads than adults.


Mourning Warblers inhabit clearings with dense undergrowth, and brushy areas.


Mourning Warblers eat insects.


Mourning Warblers forage in shrubs near the ground.


Mourning Warblers breed across much of southern Canada and parts of the northeastern U.S. They winter in Central America. The population is stable.

More information:

Bent Life History

Visit the Bent Life History for extensive additional information on the Mourning Warbler.


Fun Facts

The male Mourning Warbler feeds the female while she incubates.

Rather than crossing the Gulf of Mexico, Mourning Warblers migrate overland through Mexico and Texas.


The song is a series of churring notes.  A flat “chit” call is also given.


Similar Species

Connecticut Warbler
Connecticut Warblers have a bold white eye ring.

MacGillivray’s Warbler
MacGillivray’s Warblers have bold, white arcs above and below each eye.


The Mourning Warbler’s nest is a cup of leaves, grasses, and weeds and is lined with finer materials. It is placed on the ground near a shrub or bramble.

Number: Usually lay 3-4 eggs.
Color: Whitish with darker markings.

Incubation and fledging:
The young hatch at about 12 days and fledge at about 7-9 days, though remaining dependent on the adults for some time.


Bent Life History of the Mourning Warbler

Published by the Smithsonian Institution between the 1920s and the 1950s, the Bent life history series of monographs provide an often colorful description of the birds of North America. Arthur Cleveland Bent was the lead author for the series. The Bent series is a great resource and often includes quotes from early American Ornithologists, including Audubon, Townsend, Wilson, Sutton and many others.

Bent Life History for the Mourning Warbler – the common name and sub-species reflect the nomenclature in use at the time the description was written.



Alexander Wilson (1832) discovered this warbler “on the border of a marsh, within a few miles of Philadelphia,” hence the scientific name philadelphia; he called it the mourning warbler on account of the black markings on its breast, which suggested a symbol of mourning. The name is not happily chosen, however, for as Forbush (1929) says, “this crepe-like marking about the breast is the only thing about the bird that would suggest mourning, for it seems as happy and active as most birds, and its song is a paean of joy.” Wilson never saw another specimen, and Audubon handled very few; Nuttall was apparently not sure that he even saw a single one. This is not strange, for it is not common in the Eastern States, where it occurs as a late migrant and is not easily detected in the dense shrubbery that it frequents at a time when vegetation is in full leaf.

Spring: From its winter home in Central and South America, the mourning warbler enters the United States on a front extending from Florida to Texas; it is apparently very rare in Florida, where Howell (1932) gives only two spring records. There is probably a heavy migration directly across the Gulf of Mexico, from Yucatan to the Gulf States, for M. A. Frazar (1881) saw “large numbers” flying northward on a line from Yucatan to the mouth of the Mississippi, when his ship was about 30 miles south of the Louisiana coast. It has been reported by various observers as migrating regularly through eastern Texas, where I have observed it in the passing waves of migrants. Thence it spreads out northeastward along the Alleghenies, as well as migrating northward through the Mississippi Valley. It is comparatively rare east of the Alleghenies, but decidedly commoner to the west of that range. Milton B. Trautman (1940) says of the spring migration in Ohio:

In spring the Mourning Warbler inhabited chiefly the dense shrub layer of the remnant swamp forests, and, occasionally, the dense tangles of hilly woodlands. The birds in the upland woods were almost invariably in the wetter sections, such as In the lower third of a ravine. The females and some males were very secretive, remaining in dense shrubbery, except when flying in a skulking manner from one tangle to another, or when scolding for an instant upon some terminal branch in response to much “Screech Owl” whistling. The high-plumaged males, however, seemingly sang each morning, and while singing were most conspicuous. The males usually remained quiet during the early morning warbler chorus. About 7 a. m. their sharp, “chip” note could be heard in tangles, and shortly thereafter they appeared singly and in small groups. They perched on small twigs, peered about for a moment, flew upward a few feet, and alighted upon the twigs of small, rather Isolated bushes or saplings. There they perched quietly for a few moments before beginning to sing. After singing in loud clear voices several times they hopped upward to the next branches and repeated the song, and then continued alternately to perch higher and sing until the tops of the shrubs or saplings were reached.

From the fan-shaped migration route the breeding range spreads out from Newfoundland on the east to Alberta on the west, including southern Canada and some of the Northern States, and extends southward in the mountains to New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. On its breeding grounds, the mourning warbler shows a preference for old clearings and cut-over lands or slashings, often on the uplands, where dense thickets of raspberries or tangles of blackberry vines have covered the open ground; it is also partial to patches of nettles and is especially fond of extensive growths of jeweiweed and other rank herbage. It seldom ventures far into the shady woods but may be found around the edges, along old brush fences and in lowland thickets, such as are frequented by northern yellowthroats, even where the ground is damp.

Nesting: The rather bulky nest of the mourning warbler is placed on or near the ground, usually not over 6 inches above it, though sometimes as much as 30. It is generally built in tangles of raspberry, blackberry, or other briery shrubs, sometimes in a bunch of ferns, in a clump of goldenrod or other rank herbage, or even in a tussock of grass. Ora W. Knight (1908) describes a nest found in Maine:

The nest was quite a bulky affair and placed at the base of a clump of coarse weed stocks about sIx Inches from the ground. The outer nest was of dry leaves and vine stalks. The nest proper was made up with a thick outer wall of dead, coarse, fiat-bladed grass, with finer grasses and a few weed stalks, and all through this outer wall was interwoven a few small, dead, white maple leaves. The inner wall was composed of fine grasses, and the inner lining contained a few horsehairs. It was a very neat, compact nest, well built to protect the eggs from dampness from the moist ground where it was placed. It measured, outside diameter, five inches; inside diameter, two inches; outside depth, three and one-half inches; Inside depth, two inches.

F. H. Eaton (1914) quotes Verdi Burtch, of Branchport, N. Y., as follows:

In Potter swamp, where the timber has been well thinned out, where the ground is wet and springy, where the ferns, skunk cabbage, tall rue, spice bush, bishops cap, false Solomon’s seal, white baneberry and marsh marigold mingle, and poison ivy and woody nightshade cover the stumps and dead tops, and here and there a tall dead stub towers above the bushes, here the Mourning warhier makes its summer home, nesting along the abandoned wood roads and more open places that are now grown up with grass, ferns, skunk cabbage, rue and marsh marigolds. * * * These swamp nests are usually situated in a grassy place among the brush and tops that were left by the lumbermen, in a bunch of weeds, or in the middle of a bunch of skunk cabbage or ferns. One nest was placed on top of a thick vine that ran over the ground and there was scarcely any attempt at concealment. Another was in a very wet place in the heart of a marsh marigold. Another was In a bunch of weeds on a rotted moss and dirt-covered log. The nests are usually very well concealed and very near the ground. * * *

The Mourning warbler also nests in an entirely different situation near Branchport. June 4, 1908, a nest was found in a dry bush lot clearing along a large gully at an elevation of 250 feet above the valley. It was placed in a small beech bush 18 inches from the ground among wild blackberry bushes, beech stumps and sprouts. * * * A nest found June 13, 1909, was a little farther up this same hill and was placed on the ground in a clump of oxeye daisies close by the highway through some woods and it was less than 2 feet from the beaten track.

Eggs: The mourning warbler lays from 3 to 5 eggs to a set, mor~ often 4. They are ovate with a tendency toward short ovate and have a slight gloss. The ground color is white, or creamy white, and is speckled, spotted, or blotched with “bay,” “chestnut,” and “auburn,” with underlying spots of “light vinaceous drab,” “brownish drab,” or “drab-gray.” In addition to these markings, many eggs have a few scattered spots, or very small scrawls of black. Although there is a tendency toward concentration of markings at the large end, many eggs are finely and delicately speckled over the entire surface. The measurements of 50 eggs average 18.2 by 13.8 millimeters; the eggs showing the four extremes measure 20.0 by 14.2, 19.9 by 14.7, 16.5 by 13.7, and 17.7 by 13.2 millimeters (Harris).

Plumages: Dr. Dwight (1900) says that the juvenal plumage of the mourning warbler is “very similar to C. trio/tag but darker. Above deep olive-brown. Wings darker, edged with olive-green, the coverts faintly edged with pale cinnamon. Tail deep olive-green. Below, very deep grayish tawny-olive, abdomen and crissuin pale brownish Naples-yellow. Inconspicuous orbital ring pale buff.”

The postjuvenal molt, which involves the contour plumage and the wing coverts, but not the rest of the wings or the tail, occurs in August and is completed before the birds reach their winter home. Dr. Dwight describes the male as “above similar to 0. trickas and to C. agilis but greener than either, with a plumbeous tinge about the head, and the yellow below brighter. There is usually a little concealed black on the throat; the chin is yellowish white. The conspicuous orbital ring and a supraloral line are pale canary-yellow, the lores dusky.”

The first nuptial plumage is “acquired by a partial prenuptial moult which involves chiefly the head and throat. The plumbeous cap, the black throat veiled with cinereous, the dusky lores and the white orbital rings are assumed, the rest of the plumage showing a good deal of wear.” This and subsequent prenuptial molts occur in late February and March, before the birds come north.

Adults have a complete postnuptial molt in August and a partial prenuptial molt as in the young birds. Of the female, he says: “The plumages and moults correspond to those of the male. In first winter plumage the throat is browner and in hut slight contrast to the breast, scarcely distinguishable from the male first winter dress of 0. agilis. The first nuptial plumage is acquired chiefly by wear. The adult winter plumage resembles the somewhat grayer first winter male.” No black is assumed on the throat.

Food: No one seems to have made a study of the food of this warbler. Dr. B. H. Warren (1890) mentions beetles and spiders in the food of two that he examined. The bird is doubtless mainly insectivorous and probably obtains most of its food on or near the ground. An interesting item of food is mentioned in Dr. Skutch’s account of winter habits.

Behavior: In a general way the behavior of the mourning warbler is much like that of the northern yellowthroat, though it is rather more timid and retiring, plunging into the densest thickets on the slightest alarm. It is especially secretive on the fall migration, skulking through the thickest underbrush on the edges of the woods or along old brush fences. But, in the spring, the males are often quite conspicuous, mounting to the tops of bushes or small trees to sing. William Brewster (1938) writes: “A male among fallen tree-tops behind the house eluded me in the most provoking manner, creeping about like a Wren among the debris. Sometimes he would appear within a few yards of me, disappearing almost instantly, and when next seen would be perhaps forty or fifty yards away. His gait was distinctly a ‘hop’ but in other respects he resembled the Connecticut Warbler, especially in flight and in attitude when perched.”

Voice: Aretas A. Saunders contributes the following study of the song:

“The song of the mourning warbler is quite short, and averages a little lower in pitch than most warbler songs. It is loud, musical in quality and contains marked explosive and liquid consonant sounds. It is usually in two distinct parts.

“The first part consists of 2 to 5 notes, slurs, or 2-note phrases, sounding, when a single note, like tleet or tseet, and when of 2-notes like tolee or ehoree, varying in individual birds. The majority of songs have 3 such notes or slurs. Of my 30 records 20 slur upward, 6 slur downward, and 4 are single notes. When they slur downward the sound is like teelo. The second part is short, and the notes faster, especially when there are many. The number of notes varies from 1 to 9, averaging 3. In 5 records there is no second part. The notes of the second part vary considerably. In some songs they are all equal and on one pitch, sounding like to to to or tsit tsit. When there are more notes they vary in pitch and are often connected giving an effect like totletoleeto. The second part is two to three tones lower in pitch than the first.

“The pitch varies from C”‘ to B”‘, a half tone less than an octave. Individual songs range from one to three and a half tones, averaging two tones. Songs are from 1 to 2 seconds in length. The notes of the first part occur about three a second; those of the second part about five a second.

“The mourning warbler also sings a flight song which is somewhat longer, contains several choree notes, usually at the beginning, and several groups of rapid twitters. The bird rises from the ground or a low perch, singing as it rises, terminates the song at a height of about 20 feet, and drops silently back to the ground.

“My records of 14 years in Allegany State Park, N. Y., show that the song ceases in July, averaging July 14, the earliest date being July 7,1932 and the latest date July 22, 1935. The song is sometimes revived in August, especially the flight song.”

Francis H. Allen (MS.) sets the song down as “wee 8urree sur’ree aurree aurree, with a falling inflection. Three or four tiLur-rees are often followed by a pretty warble, which I once recorded as thurr&dloo. Sometimes there are two or three introductory notes, and a bird at Underhill, Vt., used to address my companion with a greeting that sounded much like kiss tn,e Charrlie, (Jharrlie, Charlie. Birds on the spring migration sang very distinctly wee-three wee-three wethree. The song, in my experience, is always distinctive and easily identified. A call or alarm note is a sharp, rough chip that seems to be diagnostic.”

A. D. Du Bois (MS.) writes the song as “chocy, chocy, chooy, choochoo-choo. The first three notes are alike, beginning at the same pitch, and each slurred upward to the same extent.” In some notes sent to me a long time ago, Dr. Harrison F. Lewis records nine different renderings of the song in syllables; six of these are different combinations of yeee, yeee, yeee, churr, churr, chum’, varying from two to four of each of the two syllables in the different songs; others are yeee, yeee, churry-uri.y-urry, and three or four repetitions of the churry note. The song reminded him of the songs of the house wren and Lincoln’s sparrow. I recorded it in Newfoundland in 1912 as we zrr~e, we zrr~e, we zrr~e-u. Many other similar renderings have been published. Wendell Taber refers in his notes to the persistent singing of a male mourning warbler on its breeding grounds; he counted 49 songs in 12 minutes between 7:30 and 7:42 p. in., the songs being regularly spaced.

Field marks: The mourning and MacGillivray’s warblers are very much alike, but the adult male of the latter has a white spot above and another below the eye, which are lacking in the former. The young male and the female of these two species are almost impossible to distinguish, as the young mourning warbler has an indication of an eye ring, but it has a shorter tail than the MacGillivray’s. Fortunately, the ranges of the two do not overlap to any great extent.. In some plumages, the mourning warbler resembles the Connecticut warbler, though it is decidedly smaller, and the under tail coverts of the latter are decidedly longer. The adult male mourning is distinguished by its black throat and by the absence of the white eye ring, but females and young males have an incomplete eye ring in the fall, making their recognition difficult.

Enemies: This warbler is evidently a rare victim of the cowbird; I can find only four records of such parasitism.

Fall: The autumnal migration route of the mourning warbler is apparently a reversal of the spring route. The bird is an early migrant, leaving its breeding range in July and August, and appearing in Central America early in September. It seems rarer in the fall than it probably is, for it is very secretive, skulking through dense thickets and rank herbage; it is mainly silent, also, which helps to make it seldom observed.

Winter: Dr. Alexander F. Skutch contributes the following account: “The mourning warbler is an abundant winter resident in the lowlands of Costa Rica, up to an altititude of about 4,000 feet. It is numerous on the lower Caribbean slope, and equally so in the basin of El General on the Pacific slope, where at an elevation of 3,000 feet it is still one of the most abundant of wintering warblers. But in the drier northwestern province of Guanacaste, it is rare or absent. Avoiding the woodlands, it frequents low, dense thickets and fields overgrown with tall weeds and rank grass, where it reveals its presence by its constantly repeated sharp call-note, yet is difficult to glimpse. It is solitary during the winter months.

“During the exceptionally wet year of 1937, a mourning warbler, who lived in a weedy field close by my cabin, sang repeatedly, especially on rainy or darkly overcast and threatening afternoons. I first heard him on February 15, and then at intervals until late in March. As he flitted about through the wet vegetation in search of insects, he would sing a low but full, smoothly flowing, long-continued warble: an exceptionally beautiful song, much like that of the Central American ground-chat. On April 24 of the same year, I heard another mourning warbler sing, but this time only a few detached syllables. This bird then proceeded to eat the protein bodies from the leafbases of a young Cecropia tree. These tiny, white, beadlike corpuscles, produced in numbers on the brown, velvety bases of the long petioles of the broad Cecropia leaves, are the special food of the Azteca ants that dwell in the hollow stems of this fast-growing tree. When the tree is occupied by its usual colony of ants, the corpuscles are removed as fast as they ripen; but if the tree chance to remain untenanted, they accumulate and become a dainty food for a variety of small birds.

“Although it passes on migration through northern Central America, the mourning warbler has been rarely recorded there. It arrives in Costa Rica in September, usually late in the month, and remains until the end of April or May, sometimes delaying its departure until the middle of May.

“Early dates of fall arrival in Central America are: Guatemala: Panajachel (Griscom), September 20. Costa Rica: San Jose (Cherrie), September 1, 1890; Rio Sicsola (Carriker), September 24; Basin of El General, September 23, 1936 and October 4, 1942.

“Late dates of spring departure from Central America are: Costa Rica: Boruca (Underwood), April 27; Basin of El General, April 27, 1936, May 1, 1937, May 14, 1939, May 5, 1940, April 24, 1942 and April 29, 1943; San Jose (Cherrie), April 27, 1890; Jejivalle, April 16, 1941. Honduras: Tela, May 10, 1930. Guatemala: La Carolina (Griscom), May 15.”

Range: Southern Canada and eastern United States south to northwestern South America.

Breeding range: The mourning warbler breeds north to probably northeastern British Columbia (Fort Nelson and Dawson Creek); central Alberta (Athabaska, Camrose, Nevis; probably: Grand Prairie, Peace River, Egg Lake, and Fort MacMurray); probably central Saskatchewan (Big River, Emma Lake, and Hudson Bay Junction); Manitoba (Duck Mountain, Fairford, and Hillside Beach) ; central Ontario (Kenora, Lac Seul, Missinaibi, Kapuskasing, and Lake Abitibi); southern Quebec (Mistassini Post, Notre Dame de la Doree, Val Jalbert, Cross Point, and Magdalen Island); and Newfoundland (Nicholsville and probably Lewisporte). East to Newfoundland (probably Lewisporte); central Nova Scotia (Wolfville and Halifax); central western and southeastern Maine (Andover, Waterville, and Machias); central New Hampshire (Mount Moosilauke) ; northwestern and central Massachusetts (Mount Graylock and Princeton); southeastern New York (Kortright and Roxbury); northeastern Pennsylvania (Harvey Lake and Laanna); western Maryland (Backbone Mountain); and eastern West Virginia (Cheat Bridge, Cherry River Glades, Top of Allegheny, and Spruce Knob). South to West Virginia (Spruce Knob); northwestern Ohio (Spencer and Toledo); Michigan (Montealm County and Lansing) ; northeastern Illinois (La Grange Park) ; central and eastern Wisconsin (Unity, New London, and Germantown); northwestern and central eastern Minnesota (eastern Polk County, Leech Lake, Gull Lake, and Isanti County) ; and central northern and northeastern North Dakota (Turtle Mountains, Pembina, and Grand Forks). West to central northern North Dakota (Turtle Mountains) ; southern Alberta (Glenevis); and northeastern British Columbia (Fort Nelson). The mourning warbler winters north to southern Nicaragua (Greytown) and western Venezuela (Encontrados). East to western Venezuela (Encontrados); Colombia (Ocana and Bogoffi) ; and Ecuador (Mapoto, Papallacta, and Oyacachi). South to Ecuador (Oyacachi). West to Ecuador (Qyacachi); Costa Rica (Beruca, Juan Vilias, and Cerro de Santa Maria) ; and Nicaragua (Greytown).

Migration: L ate dates of spring departure are: Venezuela: Rancho Grande near Maracay, Aragua, April 9. Colombia: Santa Marta region, April 11. Panam~: Gat6n, April 28. Costa Rica: San Isidro del General, May 8. Salvador: Lake Chanmica, May 14. Honduras: near Te]a, May 10. Guatemala: La Carolina, May 15. Tabasco: Reforma, May 22; Veracruz: Buena Vista, May 13.

Early dates of spring arrival are: Puerto Rico: Santa Isabel, March 21. Florida: St. Augustine, March 13. Virginia: Lexington, April 27. West Virginia: Cabell County, May 7. District of Columbia: Washington, May 4 (average of 16 years, May 15). Maryland: Elk River, May 7. Pennsylvania: Carlisle, May 3; Berwyn, May 5. New Jersey: Bernardsville, May 5. New York: Buffalo and Syracuse, May 2; Hempstead, Long Island, May 8. Connecticut: Glastonbury, May 6. Rhode Island: Cranston, May 21. Massachusetts: Manchester, May 11. Vermont: Wells River, May 10. New Hampshire: East Westmoreland, May 8. Maine: Winthrop and Big Lyford, May 10. Quebec: Montreal, May 20. Nova Scotia: Antigonish, May 30. Newfoundland: Gander, June 7. Gulf of Mexico: 30 miles south of mouth of Mississippi River, April 2. Louisiana: Oak Grove, April 18. Mississippi: Edwards, April 28. Arkansas: Helena, May 2. Tennessee: Memphis, May 5. Missouri: Columbia, April 30. Kentucky: Bowling Green, April 20. Ohio: Columbus area, May 1 (average, May 12). Indiana: Terre Haute, May 2. Michigan: Ann Arbor, May 5. Ontario: Ottawa, May 10 (average of 8 years, May 24). Illinois: Chicago region, May 8 (average, May 16). Wisconsin: Dane County, May 3. Iowa: Sac County, May 4. Minnesota: Minneapolis, May 8 (average of 24 years for southern Minnesota, May 18). Texas: Rockport, April 31; San Antonio and Kemah, April 24. Oklahoma: Copan, May 16. Kansas: Lawrence, May 12. Nebraska: Plattsmouth, May 6. South Dakota: Mellette, May 14. North Dakota: Lower Souris Refuge, Upham, May 13; Cass County, May 22 (average May 25). Manitoba: Margaret, May 13; Aweme, May20 (average June 3). Saskatchewan: Lake Johnston, May 25. Alberta: Glenevis, May 24.

Late dates of fall departure are: Alberta: Glenevis, September 2. Manitoba: Treesbank, September 25; Aweme, September 5 (average, August 29). North Dakota: Fargo, September 21; Cass County, September 18 (average, September 13). Nebraska: Hastings, October 8. Kansas: Washington Creek and Lawrence, September 14. Oklahoma: Norman and Oklahoma City, October 6. Texas: Harlingen, October 27i. Minnesota: Minneapolis, October 5 (average of 5 years, September 20). lowa: Osage, September 12. Wisconsin: Madison area, Oc2tober 5. Illinois: Chicago region, September 29. Ontario: Ottawa,IAugust 28; Port Dover, September 2. Michigan: Ottawa County, September 27. Indiana: Whiting and Richmond, September 19. Ohio: central Ohio, November 1 (average, September 30). Kentucky: Bowling Green, October 2. Louisiana: Baton Rouge region, October 18. Newfoundland: Cape Anguille, September 24. Quebec: Bird Rock, Magdalen Islands, September 7. Maine: Monhegai~ Island, October 21. New Hampshire: Monroe, September 21. Vermont: Wells River, September 21. Massachusetts: Nauset, October 1. Connecticut: West Hartford, October 7. New York: Rye, October 12. New Jersey: Union County, October 7. Pennsylvania.: Jeffersonville, October 7. Maryland: Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge, October 13. District of Columbia: Washington, October 1. Virginia: Charlottesville, October 4. North Carolina: Asheville, October 4. Florida: Chokoloskee, September 30. Mexico: Tarhaulipas: Guiaves, September 22.

Early dates of fall arrival are: North Dakota: Fargo, August 17; Cass County, August 22 (average, August 30). Nebraska: Red Cloud, August 23. Kansas: Lake Quivira, Johnson County, August 31. Oklahoma: Pittsburg County, August 23. Texas: Austin region, August 17; ‘Brownsville, August 28. Minnesota: Minneapolis, July 31 (average of 11 years, August 22). lowa: Osage, August 24. Wisconsin: near Neillsville, August 7. Illinois: Glen Ellyn, August 17. Michigan: Sand Point, Huron County, August 17. Indiana: Lake County, September 3. Ohio: South Webster, August 7; central Ohio, August 23 (average, September 5). Kentucky: Bowling Green, September 19. Tennessee: Quebec, August 18. Mississippi: Edwards and Bolivar Counties, September 1. Maine: Muscongus Bay, July 20. New Hampshire: Monroe, August 29. Vermont: Northfield, July 22. Massachusetts: Swampscott, July 20; Northampton, August 9. Connecticut: Hartford and East Windsor Hill, September 7. New York: Bronx, August 5. New Jersey: Englewood region, August 21. Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh, August 14. Maryland: Laurel, August 17. District of Columbia: Washington, August 21. Virginia: Rosslyn, August 19. North Carolina: Montreat, July 31; Asheville, August 23. Tamaulipas: Matamoros, August 16. Guatemala: Panajachel, September 20. Salvador: Divisadero, September 29. Nicaragua: near Bluefields, October 8. Costa Rica: San Jost~, September 1. Panam~: Almirante, October 12. Colombia: Cauca Valley, October 11.

Egg dates: New York: 44 records, May 24 to July 3; 24 records, June 3 to 20, indicating the height of the season (Harris).

Quebec: 10 records, June 9 to 20.

About the Author

Sam Crowe

Sam is the founder of He has been birding for over 30 years and has a world list of over 2000 species. He has served as treasurer of the Texas Ornithological Society, Sanctuary Chair of Dallas Audubon, Editor of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's "All About Birds" web site and as a contributing editor for Birding Business magazine. Many of his photographs and videos can be found on the site.

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