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Canada Warbler

These small creatures breed in Canada and the northeastern U.S. states but travel to South America for the winter.

Inhabiting forest with dense understory during the breeding season, the Canada Warbler is a Neotropical migrant, and there is some evidence that it migrates in pairs. Canada Warbler nests are fairly commonly parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds.

There are fairly few detailed studies of Canada Warblers, but one bird was known to live almost 8 years. Logging and forest fragmentation are threats to its population.


Description of the Canada Warbler


The Canada Warbler has bluish-gray upperparts and wings, and yellowish underparts with black streaking on the breast forming a necklace. It has white undertail coverts and a bold white eye ring. Males have a black forehead and heavier streaking on the breast.  Length: 5 in.  Wingspan: 8 in.

Canada Warbler


Females have a mostly gray forehead and paler streaking on the breast.

Seasonal change in appearance

Fall birds are slightly plainer, with less breast streaking.


Fall immatures are similar to but somewhat plainer than fall adults.


Canada Warblers inhabit moist forest undergrowth.


Canada Warblers eat insects.

Canada Warbler

Photograph © Glenn Bartley.


Canada Warblers forage actively, in foliage and on the ground, and often by flycatching.


Canada Warblers breed across central and eastern Canada and in parts of the northeastern U.S. and Appalachians. During migration, they can be seen across much of the eastern U.S. They winter in South America. The population is declining.

More information:

Bent Life History

Visit the Bent Life History for extensive additional information on the Canada Warbler.

Fun Facts

Canada Warblers apparently migrate overland through Mexico rather than crossing the Gulf of Mexico.

Canada Warblers are curious, and often respond well to pishing.


The song is a series of clear but erratic notes. A squeaky call is also given.


Similar Species

Hooded Warbler
Female Hooded Warbler lackc breast streaks and strong eye ring.

Magnolia Warbler
Male Magnolia Warblers have strong black and white face pattern, large, white wingbar.


The Canada Warbler’s nest is a cup of leaves, bark shreds, grasses, and weeds and is lined with finer materials. It is placed on or very near the ground in mossy areas or within upturned tree roots.

Number: Usually lay 4 eggs.
Color: Whitish with darker markings.

Incubation and fledging:
The young hatch at about 12 days and fledge at an unknown age, though probably remaining dependent on the adults for some time.


Bent Life History of the Canada Warbler

Published by the Smithsonian Institution between the 1920s and the 1950s, the Bent life history series of monographs provide an often colorful description of the birds of North America. Arthur Cleveland Bent was the lead author for the series. The Bent series is a great resource and often includes quotes from early American Ornithologists, including Audubon, Townsend, Wilson, Sutton and many others.

Bent Life History for the Canada Warbler – the common name and sub-species reflect the nomenclature in use at the time the description was written.



In spite of its name, this pretty, necklaced warbler is not confined to Canada, but finds congenial haunts in many of the cooler spots in the Northern States and at the higher altitudes in the Alleghenies as far south as northern Georgia. Gerald Thayer wrote to Dr. Chapman (1907) : “It is a bird of rich deciduous undergrowth in the deep, damp forest,: a ranger between the bush-tops and low tree-branches and the ground. It avoids purely coniferous woods, and so is almost wholly wanting from the closely-spruce-clad northern slopes of Mt. Monadnock [New Hampsbire], though abundant in the deep mixed timber all about its northern base. On the eastern slopes of the mountain, where the forest is more largely deciduous, the Canada is fairly common almost up to the rocky backbone ridge, at heights of from 2,300 to 2,700 or so feet.”

In southeastern Massachusetts, where I live, the Canada warbler breeds regularly, but not abundantly, in the cool, damp, heavy woods of mixed growth, mainly around the borders of the extensive cedar swamps, but also in mature forests where large trees furnish cool shade and where rocky ravines are watered with spring-fed streams.

Rev. J. J. Murray tells me that this is the most common warbler on the higher mountains of West Virginia, abundant above 8,000 feet. Prof. Maurice Brooks (1936) says that it “has found an apparently satisfactory home in the deciduous second growth. This species shares with the Magnolia the claim to being the most abundant northern warbler in West Virginia. There is not a mountain area where it may not be found.” Elsewhere, he says (1940) : “A favorite haunt is a ravine with dense hemlock overstory and an understory of tangled rhododendron.”

In northwestern North Carolina, Thomas D. Burleigh (1941) found it on Mount Mitchell, “a plentiful breeding bird in the cut-over area to an altitude of approximately 6,300 feet, appearing early in May and lingering until the first of September. Not known to nest in the fir and spruce woods at the top of the mountain until the year 1934 when two pairs were found there May 23.” He had previously (1925) found it breeding in northeastern Georgia on the north slope of Brasstown Bald above an elevation of 4,000 feet. He felt sure “that at least ten pair must have nested there among the moss-covered boulders and tangled rhododendron thickets.”

Spring: From its winter haunts in South America the Canada warbler migrates through the eastern United States in May, covering a period of 3 or 4 weeks in passage. Prof. Cooke (1904) writes: “The great bulk of the species passes along the Atlantic coast and westward to and including the valley of the Ohio. In the interior the bird is a rare migrant from eastern Texas, eastern Kansas, eastern Nebraska, through the valley of the Red River of the North to Manitoba. Accidental occurrences are reported from central Texas, southern New Mexico, and eastern Colorado.”

On the spring migration, we generally see the Canada warbler in the lower stories of the swampy woods, or in the denser underbrush, much such places as are frequented by Wilson’s warblers. Referring to Ohio, Milton B. Trautman (1940) says: “In spring the species was found in the greatest numbers in the profuse shrub layer of the larger upland and lowland remnant forests. This lovely warbler had a decided preference for the spicebushes (Benzoin aestivale) of the swamp forest, and it fed and sang its pleasing song among these newly leaved flowering shrubs.”

Nesting: The Canada warbler builds its nest on or near the ground, often in a mossy hummock, on a moss-covered log or stump, or in a cavity in a bank or the upturned roots of a fallen tree. Robie W. Tufts’ notes mention a Nova Scotia nest that was “built among the roots of an upturned tree over a pool of water, in thick, swampy land in coniferous woods.” F. H. Kennard records in his notes two nests, found near Lancaster, N. H., that were placed on the sides of moss-covered stumps. In Owen Durfee’s journal I find the descriptions of five nests of this warbler, found in the same locality; these were all well hidden in sphagnum moss, or green tree moss, on hummocks, old stumps or fallen logs; two were in a wet swamp and less than a foot above water. The nests were well inside the concealing moss with an entrance about 2 inches wide; one nest measured 4½ inches in outside diameter, 21/2 in inside diameter, and 11/2 inches in inside depth.

Miss Cordelia J. Stanwood (MS.) describes a nest she found near Ellsworth, Maine, placed in a rather open situation on the ground between a moss-covered stump and the roots of a gray birch. “The outside was composed of leaves: poplar, dwarf cornel and gray birch: with the addition of the inner bark fibre of such young dead trees as poplar, soft maple, and willow, and also a few white pine needles, several decayed fern stipes, and a number of skeletonized leaves. The lining consisted of minute threads of inner bark fibre and a few black horsehairs. Aside from the large, dry leaves on the outside, the stuff of which the structure was composed was fine, even minute, in texture.”

Of the nesting of the Canada warbler in western Pennsylvania, W. E. Clyde Todd (1940) mentions situations such as those described above and adds: “R. B. Simpson, who has found many nests in Warren, reports that they are also placed under the projecting banks of streams and among the ferns and moss on the sides of large rocks and ledges. One nest referred to by Burleigh was built in a mass of dry leaves at the base of a huckleberry bush; the brim was flush with the ground. ‘Wherever located, the nest is a more or less bulky, formless structure; it is composed of dry (often skeletonized) leaves, shreds of bark, dry grass, and weed stalks, with a lining of finer vegetable fibers, among which the black rootlets of the maidenhair fern (Adiar&turn) are a conspicuous element.”

T. E. McMullen has sent me the data for eight sets of eggs, found in the Pocono Mountains, Pa.; two of these were in upturned roots, two in rotten stumps, one 3 feet up on the side of a 10-foot creek bank, and the others were on the ground, one of which was among rhododendrons.

I found my first and only nest of the Canada warbler in Bridgewater, Mass., on June 9, 1924. While walking through some mixed moist woods, mostly white pines with a few oaks and other deciduous trees, near a swampy place, I flushed the warbler from its nest almost under foot; it was in plain sight at the foot of a clump of brakes (Pteridium aquilinurn); the nest contained three fresh eggs; two days later, I photographed the bird on its nest. The nest, now before me, is rather bulky and loosely made externally of dry and skeletonized leaves, coarse strips of weeds and inner bark, stems and fronds of ferns and weed tops; it is lined with very fine plant fibers, fine rootlets, and hair. The outside diameter is about 4 by 5 inches, the height about 2½, the inside diameter 21/4 by 2½, and the inside depth 134 inches.

Eggs: From 3 to 5 eggs, usually 4, constitute the set for the Canada warbler. They are ovate, some tending toward short ovate, and are slightly glossy. The white, or creamy white, ground color is speckled, spotted and sometimes blotched with “chestnut,” “bay,” or “chestnutbrown,” with undertones of “light Quaker drab,” or “light purplish gray.” On many, the markings are confined to speckles which may be scattered all over the eggs, although they are generally concentrated at the large end, where frequently they form a distinct wreath. Occasionally eggs may have spots of “Hay’s brown” and black, instead of the usual red-browns. One set of eggs which I collected is boldly marked with blotches of rich red-browns instead of the usual smaller spots. The measurements of 50 eggs average 17.2 by 13.1 millimeters; the eggs showing the four extremes measure 18.4 by 12.6, 18.0 by 14.0, 16.1 by 12.9, and 17.1 by 12.2 millimeters (Harris).

Young: The period of incubation for the Canada warbler.does not seem to have been determined, nor do we know just how long the young remain in the nest. Data on the development and growth of the young seem to be lacking. The female probably does all, or most, of the incubating and the brooding. Both parents feed the young and remove the excretal sacs.

Miss Stanwood placed a blind within a few feet of a nest and watched the birds feed the young. Her notes indicate that they are fed at frequent intervals, sometimes as often as once a minute, but more often at intervals of from 3 to 6 minutes; occasionally an interval of 15 or 20 minutes may elapse between feedings. She saw the male feed several nestlings with a large beakful of yellow grubs that had probably been found in rotten wood. He was seen to catch mosquitoes on the wing and feed them to small young by regurgitation. Green and gray caterpillars and brown measuring worms were fed to the young, and once a large gray moth. If the nest was left long unguarded, it was overrun with insects, but the female usually cleared the nest of such vermin by burrowing under the young and removing them.

Plumages: Dr. Dwight (1900) calls the natal down of the Canada warbler sepia-brown, and describes the juvenal plumage, in which the sexes are alike, as “above sepia and, when older and faded, hairbrown. Wings and tail dull olive-brown, faintly edged with dull olive-green; wing coverts paler and indistinctly edged with buff. Below, primose-yellow washed with pale wood-brown on the throat and sides. * * * Practically indistinguishable from S. pu8illa except by duller wing edgings.”

The first winter plumage is acquired by a partial postjuvenal molt, beginning early in July, which involves the contour plumage and the wing coverts, but not the rest of the wings or the tail. The sexes are recognizable in this plumage. Dr. Dwight describes the young male as “above, cinereous gray, browner on the back, the crown yellowtinged and sometimes flecked with black; wing coverts uniform with the back. Below, including supraloral line lemon-yellow, the orbital ring paler, a narrow ‘necklace’ of small black spots on the jugulum the black extending to the auriculars and lores, slightly veiled by overlapping yellow edges; the crissum dull white.” The first winter female plumage “is a little paler than that of the male without black on the crown which is brownish in contrast to the back and the ‘necklace’ consists of obscure grayish lines.”

The first nuptial plumage is acquired mainly by wear, but there is a limited prenuptial molt about the head, chin, and throat. Young birds are now like the adults, except for the worn wings and tail, which have been carried over from the juvenal plumage. Adults have a complete postnuptial molt in July. The adult winter plumage of the male is “quite different from first winter dress, the black ‘necklace’ being of heavy streaks and the black area on the lores and crown larger; black feathers with broad grayish edgings are assumed on the crown, and the wing edgings are apt to be grayer and bluish instead of greenish.” In the female, “the adult winter plumage differs slightly it any from the first winter; it has a bluer gray tint on the back and the crown is yellow-tinged rather than brown.”

The adult nuptial plumage in both sexes is acquired mainly by wear, with possibly some new growth. The female is always duller in coloration than the male, but she usually shows some traces of the ”necklace.” Food: Ora XV. Knight (1908) says of the food of the Canada warbler: “They eat moths, flies, beetles, grubs, caterpillars of the smooth, hairless type such as canker worms, the eggs of insects, spiders, mosquitoes and similar insects.” Prof. Aughey (1878) found five locusts and 29 other insects in a stomach examined in Nebraska. The items mentioned above as the food of the young are doubtless also included in the food of the adults. Of three specimens examined by F. H. King (1883) in Wisconsin, “two had eaten flies; one, a hymenopterous insect; one, beetles; and one larvae.” Although the Canada warbler obtains most of its food on the branches and foliage of trees, as well as on the ground, it feeds largely on the wing, catching its insect prey in the air. It is one of the most expert of the warblers in this pursuit, hence it was formerly called the Canada flycatching warbler, or Can. ada flycatcher.

Behavior: Gerald ‘Thayer wrote to Dr. Chapman (1907): “The Canadian is a sprightly, wide-awake, fly-snapping Warbler, vivid in movement and in song; clearly marked and brightly colored. In actions it is like the Wilson’s, a sort of mongrel between a Dendroica, an American Redstart, and a true Flycatcher. It darts after flying insects like one of the Tyrannidae, and its bill may sometimes be heard to ‘click’ when it seizes something; it has much of the Redstart’s insistent nervousness of motion, but it is a less airy ‘flitter’; and, finally, it glides and gleans among leaves and twigs like a true gleaning Warbler.”

But, with all its nervous activity, it is not particularly shy nor timid; I had no difficulty in photographing it on its nest, and Miss Stanwood observed at short range a pair feeding their young.

Voice: Aretas A. Saunders has contributed the following account: “The song of the Canada warbler is a series of rather rapid notes and 2-note phrases, varying greatly and most irregularly in pitch and time. There seems to be no general rule about the form of the song, except that two notes in succession are rarely on the same pitch. The quality of the notes is fairly musical and rather similar to that of the yellowthroat. Not only is the song variable in different individuals, but the same bird often varies it greatly. I have records of 7 songs by one individual, and 11 by another, all more or less distinct.

“The number of notes in the song varies from 5 to 15, averaging about 10. The length of song varies from 1 to 2% seconds. The pitch ranges from E”‘ to F””, and single songs have ranges from one and one half to three and one half tones, averaging two and one half. These are results from 47 records of the song.

“The length of individual notes varies, as well as the pitch, short and long notes being mixed irregularly. Occasional notes are accented. Explosive consonant sounds are fairly clear. No one rendition will fit more than one song, but one may give a general idea of the songs. 7’sip chitawee tita wee’ti tipa tupa tee is an example of one written in the field as I listened to the bird. I have heard a flight song from this bird; it is like the regular song but more prolonged.

“The Canada warbler sings on the breeding grounds till the middle of July. Records of 14 summers in Allegany State Park give an average date of July 16; the earliest are July 11 (1929 and 1939) and the latest is July 31 (1937). The song is resumed after a rather short interval, in late July or August. This bird sings more frequently after the molt than any other warbler I know of. The song is about as common in the first half of August as in early July.”

The animated song of the Canada warbler is regularly heard on migration. Many years ago, I recorded it in Taunton in May as a striking, variegated warble, rapidly uttered and fairly well indicated by such syllables as leer, chieharew, chichew, chicherew, chew, or chickarew, chicarie, cherwee. Again, on its breeding grounds in Maine, I wrote it as cher, whit, whit, whe’o, or cher, whit, whit, whe’o, whe’o, with many variations, sometimes a continuous warble, but always rich m tone, strongly accented, loud and striking.

A. D. Du Bois writes it in his notes as te wichi tichy: te wick chu, or te wichi tichi: te wichi wee, or te wich e wee. Francis II. Allen (MS.) writes: “The characteristic song of this ~varbler is of a warbling character but ends with an emphatic wip. I have been in the habit of writing it (unrealistically) as te-widdle-te-widdle, te-widdle-tewip’. I once heard one reverse the order of the two parts, singing repeatedly te-widdle-te-wip’, te-widdle-te-widdle. On June 2, 1929, in Newton, Mass., I heard one give a continuous performance of singing, one song following another immediately, the whole interspersed with chips and short trills. It was restless and flew ahead of me as I walked, finally perching on a small dead limb near the top of a small tree, where it constantly shifted its position as it sang, turning its head this way and that, and frequently facing about. It seemed to be in a frenzy of excitement.”

Field marks: The adult Canada warbler can always be recognized by the plain gray of the upper parts, without any white markings in wings or tail, by its yellow eye ring, and especially, by the pretty necklace of black spots on the yellow breast. The female is marked like the male, but her colors are somewhat duller. The young bird, in juvenal plumage, is much like the young Wilson’s warbler.

Fall: The general trend of the fall migration from eastern Canada and New England, is southwestward, and more directly southward from central Canada. Professor Cooke (1904) says:

The birds from the northeastern section of the United States appear to follow the general trend of the mountains to the Gulf Coast, being found in the fall apparently not east of Mississippi. Thence they cross the Gull of Mexico to southern Mexico and Guatemala, reaching the Pacific coast at Tehuantepec. They probably then turn southeast and follow the mountains through Costa Rica and Panama to their principal winter home in Ecuador and Peru.”

It is doubtful if all regularly migrate across the Gulf; probably some of them migrate through Texas, for Dr. XV. P. Taylor tells me that two were collected in Polk County, on September ‘1, 1937; they were in cut-over longleaf pine timber; one was in an association of blue-gray gnatcatchers, chickadees, titmice and one Carolina wren; the other was alone in a sweet gum tree near a cornfield. Again, two days later, “this warbler was found to be quite numerous here in the river bottom. Seemed to show little preference for the tall trees over the shrubs, being seen equally often in both. I flushed several of the ground.”

Dr. Alexander F. Skutch writes to me: ï’The Canada warbler is known in Central America only as a rather rare transient, journeying between its breeding ground in the north and its winter home in South America. It has been seen far more often in the fall than in the spring; and in Costa Rica, although there are a number of fall records, it has apparently never been noted in the spring. On its southward migration through Central America it spreads over both coasts as well as the central highlands up to 6,500 feet or more. The extreme dates of its fall passage are September 8 to October 7 in Guatemala, and to October20 in Costa Rica. It appears to travel singly rather than in flocks: at least, while resting and feeding it is almost always found alone; and I have only rarely seen two together. At this time it is found either in the woodland or among scattered trees.”

Dickey and van Rossem (1938) write: “The Canada warbler is by no means a common species in El Salvador, even during the height of the migration. All those that were noted were either in forest undergrowth or in the lower levels of foliage. Not one individual was detected during the spring mingrations: a circumstance which indicates that El Salvador is somewhat off the main migration route of this species.”

Winter: Professor Cooke (1904) gives the following account of this ~ winter haunts:

The winter home of the Canadian warbler lies a long distance from Canada. The species is found in greatest abundance in Peru, especially in the northern portion, and in the neighboring regions of southern Ecuador. In these sections it is found through the winter in flocks, which wander over the country on both the eastern and western slopes of the Andes. The extremes of the normal altitudes attained by the bird are 3,700 and 7,000 feet. Most of the records of its occurrence were made at an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet. One specimen was secured at Quito, Ecuador, at 9,500 feet altitude. The extreme southeastern point at which it has been recorded is in the mountains east of Lima, where Jeiski took a male and two females on the eastern slope of the Andes at over 10,000 feet elevation. These individuals were 5,700 miles distant from Labrador by the principal route of migration followed by the species.

Range: South central and southeastern Canada, eastern United States south to northwestern South America.

Breeding range: The Canada warbler breeds north to central eastern Saskatchewan (Hudson Bay Junction and probably Cumberland House); central Manitoba (probably the head of Lake Winnipegosis); central western and northwestern Ontario (Kenora and Moose Factory); central Quebec (Mistassini Post, Inlet, Matamek, and Anticosti Island); and Newfoundland. East to Newfoundland; Massachusetts (Bristol County) ; Rhode Island (Noycs Beach) ; rarely Connecticut (North Cornwall, Hartford, and Hadlyme); southeastern New York (Putnam County); northern New Jersey; central Pennsylvania (State College, Pottsville, and Mauch Chunk); western Maryland (Dans Mountain); western Virginia (Roanoke and Blue Ridge Mountains); western North Carolina (Highlands, Black Mountain, and Boone) ; and northeastern Georgia (Brasstown Bald). South to northeastern Georgia (Brasstown Bald) and eastern Tennessee (Cosby Knob). West to eastern Tennessee (Cosby Knob); eastern Kentucky (Black Mountain); eastern West Virginia (Terra Alta, Watoga, and White Sulphur Springs); northeastern Ohio (Pymatuning Swamp); southern Ontario (Listowel, Elora, and Hallowell) ; northern Michigan (Blaney Park, Weketonsing, and Bois Blanc Island); northern Wisconsin (Ladysmith, Unity, and Kelley Brook) ; central Minnesota (Cass Lake, and Mule Lacs); southern Manitoba (Aweme and Portage la Prairie) ; and central eastern Saskatchewan (Cumberland House).

Winter range: The Canada warbler winters in western Colombia (Alto Bonito, Rio Frio, and San Antonio) south through Ecuador to central Peru (Lima region and La Merced).

The species is casual in Colorado (Clear Creek and Parker Lake); and is accidental in Alaska (Forrester Island); California (Santa Barbara) ; and Greenland.

Migration: Late dates of spring departure from the winter home are: Peru: Tambillo, March 28. Ecuador: San Jose, April 2. Colombia: San Agustin, April 10. Panam~: Uatiin, April 28. Guatemala: above TecpAn, April 29. Florida: Wakulla County, May 5.

Early dates of spring arrival are: Florida: Princeton, March 17. Alabama: Birmingham, April 24. Georgia: Mihledgeville region, April 7; Atlanta, April 23. South Carohina: Spartanburg, April 30. North Carolina: Highlands, April 29. Virginia: Charlottesville, April 30 (average, May 3); Rockbridge County, May 6. West Virginia: French Creek, April27 (average of 16 years, May 1). District of Columbia: Washington, May 2 (average of 38 years, May 8). Maryland: Baltimore, April 26. Pennsylvania: Brookville, May 2; Beaver, May 3 (average, May 7). New Jersey: Morristown, May 2; Union County, May 7 (average, May 11). New York: Rochester, May 1; Ballston Spa and Westchester County, May 2. Connecticut: Portland, May 1. Rhode Island: Cranston, May 3. Massachusetts: Nahant, May 1. Vermont: Woodstock, May 10. New Hampshire: Charlestown, May 6. Maine: Brunswick, April 24; Bangor, April 25. Quebec: Montreal, May 4. New Brunswick: Bathurst, May 12. Louisiana: Monroe, April 27. Mississippi: Tishomingo County, May 3. Arkansas: Delight, April 25. Tennessee: Memphis, April 24; Athens, April 27 (average of 7 years, April 30). Kentucky: Bowling Green, April 28. Missouri: New Madrid County, April 10; St. Louis, April 28. Illinois: Chicago region, April 30 (average, May 9). Jndiana: Wlieatland, April 18; Holland, April 22. Ohio: Oberlin, April 28; central Ohio, May 2 (average, May 7). Michigan: Petersburg and Ann Arbor, May 1. Ontario: Walton and Hamilton, May 3; Ottawa, May 15 (average of 14 years, May 21). Iowa: La Porte City, May 6. Wisconson: Milwaukee and Madison, May 6. Minnesota: Fairmont, May 4 (average of 25 years for southern Minnesota, May 13). Texas: Victoria, April 1. Kansas: 1-Jarper, April 24. Nebraska: Greeley, May 3. South Dakota: Sioux Falls, May 18. North Dakota: Wilton, May 11. Manitoba, Aweine, May 18 (average, May 28). Saskatchewan: McLean, May 14. Alberta: Edmonton, May 29.

Late dates of fall departure are: Alberta: Glenevis, August 29. Saskatchewan: Last Mountain Lake, September 3. Manitoba: Winnipeg, September 11; Aweme, September 4 (average, August 28). North Dakota: Jamestown, September 14; Cass County, September 6 (average, September 1). Kansas: Lake Quivira, Johnson County, September 7. Texas: Dallas region, October 17. Minnesota: Hutchinson, September 30. Wisconsin: Milwaukee, October 10. Iowa: Davenport, October 4. Ontario-Ottawa, September 5; ‘Welland County, October 10. Michigan: Detroit, September 30. Ohio: central Ohio, October 2 (average, September 21). Indiana: Richmond, October 9. Illinois: Chicago region, September 22; (average, September 11); Rockford, October 17. Missouri: St. Louis, October 5. Kentucky: Bowling Green and Letcher County, September 25. Tennessee: Elizabethton, October 22. Mississippi: Ariel, October 14. Louisiana: Baton Rouge, October 17. Quebec: Gasp~ County, September 25. Maine: Pittsfield and Winthrop, September 12; Cutler, October 31. New Hampshire: Monroe, September 18. Vermont: Wells River, September 21. Massachusetts: Hamilton, October 16. Rhode Island: Watchaug Pond, October 8. New York: New York City, October 29, November 13. New Jersey: Union County, October 2 (average, September ~1). Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh, October 3; York, October 7. Maryland: Plummers Island, October 23. District of Columbia: Washington, October 11 (average of 16 years, September 18). West Vi~-ginia: Bluefield, September 31. Virginia: Charlottesville, September 28 (average, September 25). South Carolina: Clemson, October 28. Georgia: Atlanta, September 24. Alabama: Birmingham, October 1. Florida: Dade County, October 14. Guatemala: Colomba, Quezaltenango, October 7.

Early dates of fall arrival are: North Dakota: Fargo and Cass County, August 16 (average for Cass County, August 24). Texas: Cove, August 18. Minnesota: Minneapolis, August 13 (average of 9 years for southern Minnesota, August 22). Wisconsin: iRacine, August 16. Iowa: Emmetsburg, August 13. Ontario: Toronto, August 5. Michigan: Sault Ste. Marie, July 29. Ohio: Dayton region, August 12 (average for central Ohio, August 27). Indiana: Richmond, August 15. Illinois: Chicago region, August 3 (average, August 19). Missouri: St. Louis, August 15. Tennessee: Lebanon, August 21. Arkansas: Winslow, August 26. Mississippi: Gulfport, August 30. Louisiana: Saint Francisville, August 13. Massachusetts : Northampton and Belmont, August 2. Connecticut: Fairfield, August 11. New York: New York City, August 6. New Jersey: Essex County, August 2; Union County, August 10 (average, August 16). Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh, July 25 and 27. Maryland: Middle River, August 7. District of Columbia: Washington, July 31 (average of 15 years, August 19). West Virginia: Bluefield, August 13. Virginia: Charlottesville, July 24 (average, August 14). North Carolina: Chapel Hill, August 29. Georgia: Atlanta, August 6. Alabama: Leighton, August 18. Mexico: Tamaulipas, Matamoros, August 19. Guatemala: Colomba, Quezaltenango, September 23. El Salvador: Lake Olomega, September 1. Costa Rica: San Miguel de Desamparados, September 14. Panam~: Almirante, September 22. Colombia: Chicoral, October 12. Ecuador: below Oyacachi, August 9. Peri~i: Huachipa, October 1.

Egg dates: Maine: 10 records, May 30 to June 21.

New York: 25 records, May 25 to June 26; 15 records, June 1 to 8.

Pennsylvania: 19 records, May 27 to June 25; 12 records, May 30 to June 8 (Harris).

About the Author

Sam Crowe

Sam is the founder of He has been birding for over 30 years and has a world list of over 2000 species. He has served as treasurer of the Texas Ornithological Society, Sanctuary Chair of Dallas Audubon, Editor of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's "All About Birds" web site and as a contributing editor for Birding Business magazine. Many of his photographs and videos can be found on the site.

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